Concept: RLC circuit
The newly proposed in-plane resonant nano-electro-mechanical (IP R-NEM) sensor, that includes a doubly clamped suspended beam and two side electrodes, achieved a mass sensitivity of less than zepto g/Hz based on analytical and numerical analyses. The high frequency characterization and numerical/analytical studies of the fabricated sensor show that the high vacuum measurement environment will ease the resonance detection using the capacitance detection technique if only the thermoelsatic damping plays a dominant role for the total quality factor of the sensor. The usage of the intrinsic junction-less field-effect-transistor (JL FET) for the resonance detection of the sensor provides a more practical detection method for this sensor. As the second proposed sensor, the introduction of the monolithically integrated in-plane MOSFET with the suspended beam provides another solution for the ease of resonance frequency detection with similar operation to the junction-less transistor in the IP R-NEM sensor. The challenging fabrication technology for the in-plane resonant suspended gate field-effect-transistor (IP RSG-FET) sensor results in some post processing and simulation steps to fully explore and improve the direct current (DC) characteristics of the sensor for the consequent high frequency measurement. The results of modeling and characterization in this research provide a realistic guideline for these potential ultra-sensitive NEM sensors.
As a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency, plasmon induced transparency (PIT) has attracted great attention by mitigating otherwise cumbersome experimental implementation constraints. Here, through theoretical design, simulation and experimental validation, we present a novel approach to achieve and control PIT by hybridizing two double split ring resonators (DSRRs) on flexible polyimide substrates. In the design, the large rings in the DSRRs are stationary and mirror images of each other, while the small SRRs rotate about their center axes. Counter-directional rotation (twisting) of the small SRRs is shown to lead to resonance shifts, while co-directional rotation results in splitting of the lower frequency resonance and emergence of a PIT window. We develop an equivalent circuit model and introduce a mutual inductance parameter M whose sign is shown to characterize the existence or absence of PIT response from the structure. This model attempts to provide a quantitative measure of the physical mechanisms underlying the observed PIT phenomenon. As such, our findings can support the design of several applications such as optical buffers, delay lines, and ultra-sensitive sensors.
Nanostructured metals have received significant amount of attention in recent years due to their exciting plasmonic and photonic properties enabling strong-field localization, light concentration, and strong absorption and scattering at their resonance frequencies. Resonant plasmonic and metamaterial absorbers are of particular interest for applications in wide variety of technologies including photothermal therapy, thermophotovoltaics, heat assisted magnetic recording, hot-electron collection, and biosensing. However, it is rather challenging to realize ultra-narrow absorption bands using plasmonic materials due to large optical losses in metals that decrease the quality factor of optical resonators. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate an ultra-narrow band absorber (NBA) based on the surface lattice resonances (SLR) in periodic nanowire and nanoring arrays on optically thick, reflecting metallic films. In experiments, we observed ultra-narrow band resonant absorption peaks with a bandwidth of 12 nm and absorption amplitude exceeding 90% at visible frequencies. We demonstrate that the resonance absorption wavelength, amplitude of the absorption peak and the bandwidth can be controlled by tuning the periodicity and the thickness nanoring and nanowire arrays. Unlike conventional plasmonic absorbers utilizing common metal-insulator-metal (MIM) stacks, our narrowband absorber consists solely of metals therefore facilitating stronger optical interaction between the SLR of periodic nanostructures and the highly reflective film. Moreover, by introducing asymmetry to the nanoring/nanowire hybrid system, we observe the spectral evolution of resonance splitting enabled by strong coupling between two individual SLRs arising from nanoring and nanowire arrays. Designing such all-metallic nanostructure arrays is a promising route for achieving ultra-narrow band absorbers which can be used as absorption filters, narrow-band thermal emitters in thermophotovoltaics, and plasmonic biosensors.
Wavelength-selective metamaterial absorbers in the mid-infrared range are demonstrated by using multiple tungsten cross resonators. By adjusting the geometrical parameters of cross resonators in single-sized unit cells, near-perfect absorption with single absorption peak tunable from 3.5 µm to 5.5 µm is realized. The combination of two, three, or four cross resonators of different sizes in one unit cell enables broadband near-perfect absorption at mid-infrared range. The obtained absorption spectra exhibit omnidirectionality and weak dependence on incident polarization. The underlying mechanism of near-perfect absorption with cross resonators is further explained by the optical mode analysis, dispersion relation and equivalent RLC circuit model. Moreover, thermal analysis is performed to study the heat generation and temperature increase in the cross resonator absorbers, while the energy conversion efficiency is calculated for the thermophotovoltaic system made of the cross resonator thermal emitters and low-bandgap semiconductors.
We fabricated a floating GaN microdisk supported by a silicon pillar through photolithography, dry-etching GaN, and isotropic wet-etching silicon methods. Single-mode ultraviolet whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing was obtained from the floating GaN microdisk under optical pumping conditions at room temperature. The features of WGM lasing, i.e., the threshold, emission intensity, and lasing mode number, were characterized. A two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation about the optical field contour profile also confirmed the resonance mechanism of WGM lasing. This work can help realize single-mode WGM lasing with high quality factor and low threshold.
By designing a novel graphene plasmonic band-pass filter with two gold ribbons, we have numerically and analytically investigated the transmission properties of plasmon-induced absorption (PIA) in a compact graphene nanoribbon side-coupled waveguide. The formation and evolution of the PIA window are dependent on the superposition of super resonances and the near-field coupling intensity between the designed two resonators. Interestingly, the induced absorption window not only can be engineered longitudinally in intensity, but also dynamically tuned horizontally in the resonant wavelength by changing the Fermi energy of the graphene layers. Optical time delay near 1.0 ps can be realized in the PIA window, which exhibits excellent slow light features. Double PIA resonance is also discussed. This result may have potential applications in graphene plasmonic switching and buffering.
A subnano-g electrostatic force-rebalanced flexure accelerometer is designed for the rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument. This accelerometer has a large proof mass, which is supported inversely by two pairs of parallel leaf springs and is centered between two fixed capacitor plates. This novel design enables the proof mass to move exactly along the sensitive direction and exhibits a high rejection ratio at its cross-axis directions. Benefiting from large proof mass, high vacuum packaging, and air-tight sealing, the thermal Brownian noise of the accelerometer is lowered down to less than 0.2 ng / Hz with a quality factor of 15 and a natural resonant frequency of about 7.4 Hz . The accelerometer’s designed measurement range is about ±1 mg. Based on the correlation analysis between a commercial triaxial seismometer and our accelerometer, the demonstrated self-noise of our accelerometers is reduced to lower than 0.3 ng / Hz over the frequency ranging from 0.2 to 2 Hz, which meets the requirement of the rotating accelerometer gravity gradiometer.
We propose and numerically investigate a novel ultra-high quality (Q) factor metallic micro-cavity based on concentric double metal-insulator-metal (MIM) rings (CDMR). In this CDMR cavity, because of the angular momentum matching, the strong coupling occurs between the same order modes of the inner and outer rings with huge resonance frequency difference. Consequently, the energy distribution between in the inner and outer rings presents enormous difference. Especially, for the quasi-in-phase CDMR modes, the energy is confined in the inner ring mainly, which suppresses the radiation loss greatly and results in ultra-narrow resonance dips and ultra-high Q factors. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of this CDMR cavity can be less than 2 nm and the Q factor can be higher than 300. Moreover, the character of this CDMR metallic micro-cavity can be modulated by varying the gap width between the two MIM rings. Our CDMR metallic micro-cavity provides a new perspective to design the advanced optical cavity with high Q factor and small mode volumes.
To achieve high packing density in on-chip photonic integrated circuits, subwavelength scale nanolasers that can operate without crosstalk are essential components. Metallo-dielectric nanolasers are especially suited for this type of dense integration due to their lower Joule loss and nanoscale dimensions. Although coupling between optical cavities when placed in proximity to one another has been widely reported, whether the phenomenon is induced for metal-clad cavities has not been investigated thus far. We demonstrate coupling between two metallo-dielectric nanolasers by reducing the separation between the two cavities. A split in the resonant wavelength and quality factor is observed, caused by the creation of bonding and anti-bonding supermodes. To preserve the independence of the two closely spaced cavities, the resonance of one of the cavities is detuned relative to the other, thereby preventing coupling.
Nanoantennas offer the ultimate spatial control over light by concentrating optical energy well below the diffraction limit, whereas their quality factor (Q) is constrained by large radiative and dissipative losses. Dielectric microcavities, on the other hand, are capable of generating a high Q-factor through an extended photon storage time, but have a diffraction-limited optical mode volume. Here we bridge the two worlds, by studying an exemplary hybrid system integrating plasmonic gold nanorods acting as nanoantennas with an on-resonance dielectric photonic crystal (PC) slab acting as a low-loss microcavity, and, more importantly, by synergistically combining their advantages to produce a much stronger local field enhancement than that of the separate entities. To achieve this synergy between the two polar opposite types of nanophotonic resonant elements, we show that it is crucial to coordinate both the dissipative loss of the nanoantenna and the Q-factor of the low-loss cavity. In comparison to the antenna-cavity coupling approach using a Fabry-Perot resonator, which has proved successful for resonant amplification of the antenna’s local field intensity, we theoretically and experimentally show that coupling to a modest-Q PC guided resonance can produce a greater amplification by at least an order of magnitude. The synergistic nanoantenna-microcavity hybrid strategy opens new opportunities for further enhancing nanoscale light-matter interactions to benefit numerous areas such as nonlinear optics, nanolasers, plasmonic hot carrier technology, and surface-enhanced Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopies.