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Concept: Richard Nixon

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Changes in some lexical features of language have been associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Here we describe a method to extract key features from discourse transcripts, which we evaluated on non-scripted news conferences from President Ronald Reagan, who was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease in 1994, and President George Herbert Walker Bush, who has no known diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Key word counts previously associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease were extracted and regression analyses were conducted. President Reagan showed a significant reduction in the number of unique words over time and a significant increase in conversational fillers and non-specific nouns over time. There was no significant trend in these features for President Bush.

Concepts: President of the United States, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Republican Party, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, United States presidential election, 1984

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The link between poverty and children’s health is well recognized. Even temporary poverty may have an adverse effect on children’s health, and data consistently support the observation that poverty in childhood continues to have a negative effect on health into adulthood. In addition to childhood morbidity being related to child poverty, epidemiologic studies have documented a mortality gradient for children aged 1 to 15 years (and adults), with poor children experiencing a higher mortality rate than children from higher-income families. The global great recession is only now very slowly abating for millions of America’s children and their families. At this difficult time in the history of our nation’s families and immediately after the 50th anniversary year of President Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty, it is particularly germane for the American Academy of Pediatrics, which is “dedicated to the health of all children,” to publish a research-supported technical report that examines the mediators associated with the long-recognized adverse effects of child poverty on children and their families. This technical report draws on research from a number of disciplines, including physiology, sociology, psychology, economics, and epidemiology, to describe the present state of knowledge regarding poverty’s negative impact on children’s health and development. Children inherit not only their parents' genes but also the family ecology and its social milieu. Thus, parenting skills, housing, neighborhood, schools, and other factors (eg, medical care) all have complex relations to each other and influence how each child’s genetic canvas is expressed. Accompanying this technical report is a policy statement that describes specific actions that pediatricians and other child advocates can take to attenuate the negative effects of the mediators identified in this technical report and improve the well-being of our nation’s children and their families.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Biology, United States, Child, Childhood, Richard Nixon, Lyndon B. Johnson

2

I am honored and humbled to be one of the awardees of the 2014 A. Champalimaud Vision Award. I offer my heartfelt thanks to the Champalimaud Foundation President, Leonor Beleza, and to the Award Committee Members for this wonderful recognition. I feel especially fortunate to have had the opportunity to witness my scientific discoveries move from the bench to the clinic. Scientific discovery is hugely exciting, but the ability to translate that work into potentially helping someone lead a better life is even more fulfilling. This Award is dedicated to the patients.

Concepts: Richard Nixon, NASA

1

Dr. Pascale Richetta is Executive Vice President and Head of the Bone Patient Value Unit at UCB (Brussels, Belgium). She joined UCB in 2016 following over 20 years' experience in the pharma and biotech industry. After completing her MD at the University of Poitiers (France), she spent time as vice president at Abbvie/Abbott and has also held positions at GlaxoSmithKline, Ipsen and Servier. Through the course of her career she acquired impressive commercial experience managing both traditional pharmaceuticals and complex biologics and her knowledge of markets around the world is key to helping UCB prepare for future product launches.

Concepts: President of the United States, Richard Nixon, George W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Management occupations, Thomas Jefferson, Vice President of the United States, Vice president

1

In 1974, President Gerald Ford signed into law the Safe Drinking Water Act, the first piece of legislation of its kind to provide a comprehensive regulatory framework for overseeing the nation’s drinking water supply. The law has proven instrumental in setting standards for ensuring that the US population can access drinking water that is safe. However, the law delegates much of its monitoring requirements to states, creating, at times, a confusing and complicated system of standards that must be adhered to and enforced. Although it has proven valuable in the safety standards it specifies, the law’s administration and enforcement poses tremendous challenges.

Concepts: President of the United States, United States Congress, United States Constitution, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Safe Drinking Water Act, Jimmy Carter, Act of Congress

0

The election of Donald Trump as president of the United States raises questions about the future of Medicare. How will Medicare fare under Republican-led government? There are several compelling reasons why the Trump administration and Congressional Republicans might avoid Medicare reform, including the political risks of taking on a popular program, the difficulties the party has encountered in trying to dismantle the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the importance of older Americans to the GOP coalition, and President Trump’s views about Medicare. However, because of fiscal pressures and the commitment of Speaker of the House Paul Ryan and other Republicans to entitlement reform, the GOP nonetheless could end up attempting to make major changes in Medicare. Alternatively, Republican efforts to repeal and undermine the ACA could unintentionally enhance the political fortunes of proposals to expand Medicare. Consequently, the fate of Medicare during the Trump administration remains highly uncertain.

Concepts: United States, President of the United States, Richard Nixon, Democratic Party, George W. Bush, United States House of Representatives, Donald Trump, New Deal

0

The U.S. Navy’s casualty-receiving ships provide remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR) platforms to treat injured combatants deployed afloat and ashore. We report a significant mass casualty incident aboard the USS Bataan, and the most warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) transfused at sea for traumatic hemorrhagic shock since the Vietnam War.

Concepts: Blood, United States Marine Corps, John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Lyndon B. Johnson, Cold War, Vietnam War, John Kerry

0

The movement to promote a culture of health bears many similarities to another large-scale and ambitious effort from more than fifty years ago: President Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty. Long a target of critics of all ideological persuasions, the War on Poverty, through its heritage, offers an instructive precedent for champions of the culture of health movement. This essay examines two regional-level War on Poverty health endeavors, one each in New York City and Los Angeles. They show the influence the War on Poverty had on the ground in widening the health care safety net, implementing holistic models of care, and facilitating community involvement in the leadership of larger health care institutions.

Concepts: Health care, United States, President of the United States, New York City, John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Lyndon B. Johnson, Democratic Party

0

Shortly after the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that formaldehyde causes leukemia, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its Draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde, also concluding that formaldehyde causes leukemia. Peer review of the EPA Draft IRIS Assessment by a National Academy of Science committee noted that “causal determinations are not supported by the narrative provided in the draft” {NRC 2011}. They offered recommendations for improving the IRIS review and identified several important research gaps. Over the six years since the NRC peer review, significant new science has been published. We identify and summarize key NRC recommendations and map them to this new science, including extended analysis of epidemiological studies, updates of earlier occupational cohort studies, toxicological experiments using a sensitive mouse strain, mechanistic studies examining the role of exogenous versus endogenous formaldehyde in bone marrow, and several critical reviews. With few exceptions, new findings are consistently negative, and integration of all available evidence challenges the earlier conclusions that formaldehyde causes leukemia. Given formaldehyde’s commercial importance, environmental ubiquity and endogenous production, accurate hazard classification and risk evaluation of whether exposure to formaldehyde from occupational, residential and consumer products causes leukemia are critical.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Evaluation, Bone marrow, United States, Experiment, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environmentalism, Richard Nixon

0

The Goldwater Rule has been debated, redefined, and debated further since the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States. This column offers a perspective on the Goldwater Rule that moves beyond psychiatry’s current preoccupation with precision DSM-5 diagnosis of individuals, which ethically requires consent or other legal authorization for release of diagnostic information to others, and into the realm of leadership as seen through the “trans-dyadic” lens of psychoanalytic understanding of large group processes on a societal level. Concepts from large group psychology are introduced to illustrate “trans-dyadic” perspectives on leadership that do not challenge the Goldwater Rule.

Concepts: Psychology, United States, Sociology, Social psychology, Richard Nixon, Lyndon B. Johnson, Group dynamics, Donald Trump