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Concept: Rhus

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Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is an important crop widely used in the Mediterranean basin as a food spice, and also in folk medicine, due to its health-promoting properties. Phytochemicals present in plant foods are in part responsible for these consequent health benefits. Nevertheless, detailed information on these bioactive compounds is still scarce. Therefore, the present work was aimed at investigating the phytochemical components of sumac fruit epicarp using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS in two different ionisation modes. The proposed method provided tentative identification of 211 phenolic and other phyto-constituents, most of which have not been described so far in R. coriaria fruits. More than 180 phytochemicals (tannins, (iso)flavonoids, terpenoids, etc.) are reported herein in sumac fruits for the first time. The obtained results highlight the importance of R. coriaria as a promising source of functional ingredients, and boost its potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries.

Concepts: Time, Nutrition, Plant, Citrus, Fruit, Spice, Sumac, Rhus

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For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

Concepts: PH, Operations research, Fruit, Resveratrol, Anthocyanin, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is native to North America, and has been used by indigenous peoples for food and non-food applications for a long time. It has been adapted to the other parts of the world for cultivation as a potential source of functional food ingredients. This review summarises the updated information on the chemical composition and diverse biological activities of staghorn sumac. Various factors affect the chemical composition, function retention during processing, and nutritional properties of staghorn sumac-derived products. These factors include botanical characteristics and environmental conditions, extraction and quantification methods, and processing parameters. Various innovative and potential uses of staghorn sumac in food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries are suggested on the basis of the chemical constituents. This review provides a scientific basis for the development of staghorn sumac as a sustainable economic plant for food and other industries.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Fruit, North America, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is rich in polyphenols and may be used as an innovative ingredient in maintaining and enhancing food quality. In this report, aqueous extracts of sumac fruit powder were added up to 10% in wheat bread formulation. The extract concentration-dependently delayed the mold growth (up to 5 log reduction in 7-day storage) and the staling of bread. Adding sumac extracts dose-dependently increased the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of the breads. Minimal changes were observed in loaf volume, water activity, moisture content, texture (cohesiveness, springiness and adhesive) and aroma of breads containing extracts of less than 4%. Overall, sumac addition altered several quality attributes of bread, including hardness, color, and sensory acceptance in appearance, flavor, and texture. Sumac holds potential as a natural preservative and an anti-staling agent in bread formulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Wheat, Fruit, Bread, Food science, Copyright, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard’s bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.

Concepts: Fruit, Fallopia, Polygonaceae, Japanese knotweed, Weed, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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The six major anthocyanins found in the burgundy coloured fruits of Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.) were isolated and the structures of four compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods as being: 7-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-O-(2″galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside; 7-O-methyl-cyanidin-3-O-(2″galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside; 7-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-O-(2″'galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside-4-vinyl-catechol-3″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside; and 7-O-methyl-cyanidin-3-O-(2″'galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside-4-vinyl-catechol-3″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, respectively. Additionally, two related anthocyanin compounds, cyanidin-3-O-(2″galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside and 7-O-methyl-cyanidin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside were also recovered, with NMR spectroscopic values closely matching previous reports from other plant species. The prevalence of 7-O-methyl anthocyanins and their galloylated derivatives in sumac is highly unusual, and warrants special attention. Additionally, the in planta occurrence of two 7-O-methyl-pyranoanothocyanin-vinyl-catechol aglycones, Sumadin A and Sumadin B, and their derivatives is noted. To our knowledge, E-ring glycosylated vinyl-catechol pyranoanthocyanins were previously unknown.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Structure, Fruit, Near infrared spectroscopy, Raspberry, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus