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Concept: Rhus typhina


For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

Concepts: PH, Operations research, Fruit, Resveratrol, Anthocyanin, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus


Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is native to North America, and has been used by indigenous peoples for food and non-food applications for a long time. It has been adapted to the other parts of the world for cultivation as a potential source of functional food ingredients. This review summarises the updated information on the chemical composition and diverse biological activities of staghorn sumac. Various factors affect the chemical composition, function retention during processing, and nutritional properties of staghorn sumac-derived products. These factors include botanical characteristics and environmental conditions, extraction and quantification methods, and processing parameters. Various innovative and potential uses of staghorn sumac in food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries are suggested on the basis of the chemical constituents. This review provides a scientific basis for the development of staghorn sumac as a sustainable economic plant for food and other industries.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Fruit, North America, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus


Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is rich in polyphenols and may be used as an innovative ingredient in maintaining and enhancing food quality. In this report, aqueous extracts of sumac fruit powder were added up to 10% in wheat bread formulation. The extract concentration-dependently delayed the mold growth (up to 5 log reduction in 7-day storage) and the staling of bread. Adding sumac extracts dose-dependently increased the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of the breads. Minimal changes were observed in loaf volume, water activity, moisture content, texture (cohesiveness, springiness and adhesive) and aroma of breads containing extracts of less than 4%. Overall, sumac addition altered several quality attributes of bread, including hardness, color, and sensory acceptance in appearance, flavor, and texture. Sumac holds potential as a natural preservative and an anti-staling agent in bread formulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Wheat, Fruit, Bread, Food science, Copyright, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus


Temporal heterogeneity of a resource supply can have a profound effect on the interactions between alien and native plant species and their potential invasiveness. Precipitation patterns may be variable and result in a higher heterogeneity of water supply with global climate change. In this study, an alien shrub species, Rhus typhina, introduced to China from North America and a native shrub species, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, were grown in monoculture and mixed culture under different water supply regimes, with four levels of water supply frequencies but with a constant level of total supplied water. After 60 days of treatments, the alien species was found to be the superior competitor in the mixed culture and was unaffected by changes in the water supply pattern. The dominance of R. typhina was mainly owing to its greater biomass and effective modulation of leaf physiology. However, in the mixed culture, V. negundo var. heterophylla exhibited both leaf- and whole-plant-level acclimations, including higher leaf length to petiole length and root to shoot biomass ratios, and lower specific leaf weight and leaf length to leaf width ratio. Plant height of V. negundo var. heterophylla was comparable to that of R. typhina in the mixed culture, which is a strategy to escape shading. Although water treatments had little effect on most traits in both species, the possible influence of water regimes should not be neglected. Compared with high-frequency water supply treatments, more individuals of V. negundo var. heterophylla died in low-water-frequency treatments when in competition with R. typhina, which may lead to species turnover in the field. The authors recommended that caution should be exercised when introducing R. typhina to non-native areas in the context of global climate change.

Concepts: Precipitation, Climate, Weather, Climate change, Height, Solar variation, Vitex negundo, Rhus typhina


The etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) relates to α-synuclein, a small protein with the ability to aggregate and form Lewy bodies. One of its prevention strategies is inhibition of α-synuclein oligomerization. We have investigated the interaction of α-synuclein and human serum albumin with 3,6-bis-О-di-О-galloyl-1,2,4-tri-О-galloyl-β-d-glucose (a tannin isolated from the plant Rhus typhina). Using fluorescence spectroscopy method we found that this tannin interacts strongly with α-synuclein forming complexes. Circular dichroism analysis showed a time-dependent inhibition of α-synuclein aggregation in the presence of the tannin. On the other hand, 3,6-bis-О-di-О-galloyl-1,2,4-tri-О-galloyl-β-d-glucose had a much stronger interaction with human serum albumin than α-synuclein. The calculated binding constant for tannin-protein interaction was considerably higher for albumin than α-synuclein. This tannin interacted with albumin through a “sphere of action” mechanism. The results lead to the conclusion that 3,6-bis-О-di-О-galloyl-1,2,4-tri-О-galloyl-β-d-glucose is a potent preventive compound against Parkinson’s disease. However, this tannin interacts very strongly with human serum albumin, significantly reducing the bioavailability of this compound.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Proteins, Protein, Parkinson's disease, Alpha-synuclein, Lewy body, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Rhus typhina


Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard’s bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.

Concepts: Fruit, Fallopia, Polygonaceae, Japanese knotweed, Weed, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus


The six major anthocyanins found in the burgundy coloured fruits of Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina L.) were isolated and the structures of four compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods as being: 7-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-O-(2″galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside; 7-O-methyl-cyanidin-3-O-(2″galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside; 7-O-methyl-delphinidin-3-O-(2″'galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside-4-vinyl-catechol-3″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside; and 7-O-methyl-cyanidin-3-O-(2″'galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside-4-vinyl-catechol-3″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, respectively. Additionally, two related anthocyanin compounds, cyanidin-3-O-(2″galloyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside and 7-O-methyl-cyanidin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside were also recovered, with NMR spectroscopic values closely matching previous reports from other plant species. The prevalence of 7-O-methyl anthocyanins and their galloylated derivatives in sumac is highly unusual, and warrants special attention. Additionally, the in planta occurrence of two 7-O-methyl-pyranoanothocyanin-vinyl-catechol aglycones, Sumadin A and Sumadin B, and their derivatives is noted. To our knowledge, E-ring glycosylated vinyl-catechol pyranoanthocyanins were previously unknown.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Structure, Fruit, Near infrared spectroscopy, Raspberry, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus


Staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta L.) is a native tree in Eastern Canada whose fruit has been used by aboriginal peoples to treat various illnesses, and has recently been found to be a good source of antioxidants. However, the phytochemical composition of R. hirta is not known. In this study, we used Four highly accepted assays and confirmed its FRAP, ORAC, β-CLAMS and PCL values to be 79.95 μmol AAE/g DW, 1544 μmol TE/g DW, RAA 129% and 4513 μmol TE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities correlated positively to the total polyphenols content, which was higher in the ethanolic extract (81.6 mg GAE/ g DW) compared to the water extract (46.3mg GAE/g DW), suggesting polyphenols play an important role. Quantitative data from UHPLC and qualitative studies using HPLC-DAD-MS showed that in addition to commonly found phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins, R. hirta fruit contained a novel group of unique anthocyanins with aglycones (anthocyanidins) at 449, 419 and 433 Da. Further studies on the identification and their health beneficial effects are being conducted.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Fruit, Flavonoid, Resveratrol, Polyphenol, Anthocyanin, Sumac, Rhus typhina