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Concept: Rhinorrhea


The relationship between allergy and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains ill-defined and controversial. The association between the 2 is unclear, making an evidence-based decision of whether to evaluate and treat allergies in CRS patients difficult. The purposes of this systematic review are to (1) examine the relationship between allergy and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), (2) examine the same for allergy and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and (3) recommend evaluation and treatment based on the evidence.

Concepts: Asthma, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Sinusitis, Allergy, Rhinorrhea


The aim of this study was to determine whether the allergy status and other characteristics of common cold patients modify the effects of zinc acetate lozenges.

Concepts: Asthma, Common cold, Rhinorrhea


Abstract Objective: The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Research design and methods: Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N=3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Main Outcome Measures: Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. Results: In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least 1 cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were “bad enough” (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. Conclusions: The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate management of cough/cold.

Concepts: Asthma, Cough, Influenza, Fatigue, Common cold, Rhinorrhea, Dextromethorphan, Nasal congestion


BACKGROUND: The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat and fever (usually < 37.8˚C). The widespread morbidity it causes worldwide is related to its ubiquitousness rather than its severity. The development of vaccines for the common cold has been difficult because of antigenic variability of the common cold virus and the indistinguishable multiple other viruses and even bacteria acting as infective agents. There is uncertainty regarding the efficacy and safety of interventions for preventing the common cold in healthy people. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1948 to January week 1, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013) and LILACS (1982 to January 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any virus vaccines to prevent the common cold in healthy people. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted trial data. Disagreements were resolved by discussion or by consulting a third review author. MAIN RESULTS: This review included one RCT with 2307 healthy participants; all of them were analysed. This trial compared the effect of an adenovirus vaccine against a placebo. No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 events in 1168 participants in the placebo group; risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 2.02, P = 0.90). No adverse events related to the live vaccine were reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This Cochrane review has found a lack of evidence on the effects of vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Only one RCT was found and this did not show differences between comparison groups; it also had a high risk of bias. There are no conclusive data to support the use of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. We identified the need for well-designed, adequately powered RCTs to investigate vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Unless RCTs provide evidence of a treatment effect and the trade-off between potential benefits and harms is established, policy-makers, clinicians and academics should not recommend the use of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. Any future trials on medical treatments for preventing the common cold should assess a variety of virus vaccines for this condition. Outcome measures should include common cold incidence, vaccine safety and mortality related to the vaccine.

Concepts: Asthma, Influenza, Upper respiratory tract infection, Common cold, Rhinorrhea, Malaise, Rhinovirus, Nasal congestion


BACKGROUND: The common cold is one of the most common illnesses in humans and constitutes an economic burden both in terms of productivity and expenditure for treatment. There is no proven cure for the common cold and symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. The use of intranasal ipratropium bromide (IB) has been addressed in several studies and might prove an effective treatment for the common cold. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of IB versus placebo or no treatment on severity of rhinorrhoea and nasal congestion in children and adults with the common cold. Subjective overall improvement was another primary outcome and side effects (for example, dry mucous membranes, epistaxis and systemic anticholinergic effects) were reported as a secondary outcome. SEARCH METHODS: In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 3, MEDLINE (1950 to March week 4, 2013), MEDLINE in-process and other non-indexed citations (8 April 2013), EMBASE (1974 to April 2013), AMED (1985 to April 2013), Biosis (1974 to February 2011) and LILACS (1985 to April 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IB to placebo or no treatment in children and adults with the common cold. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We used a standardised form to extract relevant data and we contacted trial authors for additional information. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials with a total of 2144 participants were included. Four studies (1959 participants) addressed subjective change in severity of rhinorrhoea. All studies were consistent in reporting statistically significant changes in favour of IB. Nasal congestion was reported in four studies and was found to have no significant change between the two groups. Two studies found a positive response in the IB group for the global assessment of overall improvement. Side effects were more frequent in the IB group, odds ratio (OR) 2.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 to 3.11). Commonly encountered side effects included nasal dryness, blood tinged mucus and epistaxis. The overall risk of bias in the included studies was moderate. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For people with the common cold, the existing evidence, which has some limitations, suggests that IB is likely to be effective in ameliorating rhinorrhoea. IB had no effect on nasal congestion and its use was associated with more side effects compared to placebo or no treatment although these appeared to be well tolerated and self limiting. There is a need for larger, high-quality trials to determine the effectiveness of IB in relieving common cold symptoms.

Concepts: Asthma, Effectiveness, Influenza, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Mucus, Common cold, Rhinorrhea, Nasal congestion



Central nervous system (CNS) infections due to filamentous basidiomycetes are extremely rare. We encountered a case of epidural abscess due to Schizophyllum commune that extended from sinusitis. A 53-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with a headache. Computed tomography (CT) of the cranium and sinuses showed ethmoid and sphenoid sinusitis with no intracranial abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with acute sinusitis and underwent antibiotic treatment. However, the symptoms deteriorated, and the patient came to our hospital again with consciousness disturbance. CT scan of the cranium and sinuses showed no improvement of sinusitis after antibiotic therapy and an epidural abscess emerged in the middle cranial fossa. Therefore, emergency craniotomy and endoscopic sinus fenestration were performed. Filamentous fungal elements were observed in both rhinorrhoea and epidural abscess. The symptoms improved after the operation and administration of liposomal amphotericin B. The clinical isolate was identified as S. commune by a molecular-based method. To our knowledge, this is the first report of epidural abscess due to this fungus. Although rare, clinicians should be aware that S. commune could be a causative agent of CNS infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Nervous system, Fungus, Sinusitis, Antibiotic, Amphotericin B, Headache, Rhinorrhea


The role of allergy in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has long been debated and remains controversial. The 2 diseases frequently co-occur; however, direct causality has never been proved. The literature is largely mixed as to the manner and degree by which allergy contributes to CRS and this is in large part due to heterogeneity in the definitions of allergy and of CRS. In this review, the potential role of allergy in the disease processes of CRS without polyps, CRS with polyps, and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is discussed.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Asthma, Sinusitis, Allergy, Rhinitis, Rhinorrhea, Large


Kakkonto (KK), a traditional Japanese Kampo formulation for cold and flu, is generally sold as an over-the-counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals used for self-medication. Kampo formulations should be used according to the Sho-symptoms of Kampo medicine. These symptoms refer to the subjective symptoms themselves. Although with OTC pharmaceuticals, this is often not the case. We surveyed the relationship of agreement of Sho with the benefit feeling rate (BFR) of patients who took KK (n = 555), cold remedies with KK (CK, n = 315), and general cold remedies (GC, n = 539) using internet research. BFR of a faster recovery was greater in participants who took the medication early and who had confidence in their physical strength in all treatment groups. BFR was significantly higher in the GC group than in the KK group for patients with headache, runny nose, blocked nose, sneezing, and cough. BFR was also significantly higher in the GC group than in the CK group for headache (males) and cough (females). BFR was the highest in the KK group for stiff shoulders. All cold remedies were more effective when taken early, and the larger the number of Sho that a patient had, the greater the BFR increased. Therefore, a cold remedy is expected to be most effective when there are many cold symptoms and when it is taken at an early stage of the common cold.

Concepts: Asthma, Influenza, Paracetamol, Fatigue, Headache, Common cold, Rhinorrhea, Nasal congestion


Cases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to clival fracture are rare. We present a case of bacterial meningitis with CSF rhinorrhea after a clival fracture. Heavily T2-weighted images showed a bone flap in the thinned clivus and fluid collection in the sphenoid sinus. CSF rhinorrhea developed at 1 month after mild trauma. The fracture may have been caused by the trauma and/or by the pressure gradient between the intracranial CSF space and the sphenoid sinus. A detailed history to identify trauma and an examination to detect bone defects in the skull base are necessary when patients present with bacterial meningitis and persistent rhinorrhea.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Intracranial pressure, Skull, Cerebrospinal fluid, Meningitis, Meninges, Lumbar puncture, Rhinorrhea