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Concept: Reuse


Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the “citation benefit”. Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13%) more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a dataset by year 2, 100 by year 4, and more than 150 data reuse papers had been published by year 5. Data reuse was distributed across a broad base of datasets: a very conservative estimate found that 20% of the datasets deposited between 2003 and 2007 had been reused at least once by third parties. Conclusion. After accounting for other factors affecting citation rate, we find a robust citation benefit from open data, although a smaller one than previously reported. We conclude there is a direct effect of third-party data reuse that persists for years beyond the time when researchers have published most of the papers reusing their own data. Other factors that may also contribute to the citation benefit are considered. We further conclude that, at least for gene expression microarray data, a substantial fraction of archived datasets are reused, and that the intensity of dataset reuse has been steadily increasing since 2003.

Concepts: Statistics, Academic publishing, Data, Data set, DNA microarray, Reuse, Recycling, Remanufacturing


This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from 6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7 % in 2010 after the Total Food Waste Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00. Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery of all MSW.

Concepts: Waste management, Reuse, Recycling, Incineration, Waste, Waste picker, Waste hierarchy, Waste management concepts


In this study, chitosan and nano-chitosan were used as flocculants agents for harvesting microalga Nannochloropsis sp. chitosan was modified to nano-chitosan by crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate. The effects of type and dosage of flocculants and the pH of the culture were investigated on biomass recovery. Optimum dosages for both bio-flocculants were found. The results showed that the dosage of flocculant consumption decreases by 40% and biomass recovery increases by 9% when nano-chitosan instead of chitosan is used as flocculant agent. Also, the recycled water from the harvesting process was reused which increases the growth of microalgae by about 7%. Finally, the cost analysis of harvesting process showed the feasibility of using nano-chitosan as flocculation agent.

Concepts: Algae, Dose, Emulsion, Reuse, The Culture, Agent, Flocculation, Chitosan


The first chemical method for resolution of N,C-unprotected β-amino acids was developed through enantioselective formation and disassembly of nickel(II) complexes under operationally convenient conditions. The specially designed chiral ligands are inexpensive and can be quantitatively recycled along with isolation of the target β-substituted-β-amino acids in good yields and excellent enantioselectivity. The method features a broad synthetic generality including β-aryl, β-heteroaryl, and β-alkyl-derived β-amino acids. The procedure is easily scaled up, and was used for the synthetically and economically advanced preparation of the anti-diabetic drug sitagliptin.

Concepts: Stereochemistry, Enantiomer, Chirality, Anti-diabetic drug, Metformin, Reuse, Sitagliptin, Tartaric acid


The construction of reliable, reusable clinical code sets is essential when re-using Electronic Health Record (EHR) data for research. Yet code set definitions are rarely transparent and their sharing is almost non-existent. There is a lack of methodological standards for the management (construction, sharing, revision and reuse) of clinical code sets which needs to be addressed to ensure the reliability and credibility of studies which use code sets.

Concepts: Scientific method, Reliability, Electronic health record, Reuse, Medical informatics


Leachable vanadium (V) from steel production residues poses a potential environmental hazard due to its mobility and toxicity under the highly alkaline pH conditions that characterise these leachates. This work aims to test the efficiency of anion exchange resins for vanadium removal and recovery from steel slag leachates at a representative average pH of 11.5. Kinetic studies were performed to understand the vanadium sorption process. The sorption kinetics were consistent with a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The isotherm data cannot differentiate between the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity (Langmuir value qmax) was 27 mg V g(-1) resin. In column anion exchange, breakthrough was only 14% of the influent concentration after passing 90 L of steel slag leachate with 2 mg L(-1) V through the column. When eluting the column 57-72% of vanadium was recovered from the resin with 2 M NaOH. Trials on the reuse of the anion exchange resin showed it could be reused 20 times without loss of efficacy, and on average 69% of V was recovered during regeneration. The results document for the first time the use of anion exchange resins to remove vanadium from steel slag leachate. As an environmental contaminant, removal of V from leachates may be an obligation for long-term management requirements of steel slag repositories. Vanadium removal coupled with the recovery can potentially be used to offset long-term legacy treatment costs.

Concepts: Iron, PH, Reuse, Recycling, Base, Kinetics, Resin, Slag


Construction is the most resource intensive sector in the world. It consumes more than half of the total global resources; it is responsible for more than a third of the total global energy use and associated emissions; and generates the greatest and most voluminous waste stream globally. Reuse is considered to be a material and carbon saving practice highly recommended in the construction sector as it can address both waste and carbon emission regulatory targets. This practice offers the possibility to conserve resources through the reclamation of structural components and the carbon embedded in them, as well as opportunities for the development of new business models and the creation of environmental, economic, technical and social value. This paper focuses on the identification and analysis of existing interventions that can promote the reuse of construction components, and outlines the barriers and opportunities arising from this practice as depicted from the global literature. The main conclusions that derive from this study are that the combination of incentives that promote reuse of construction components and recycling of the rest of the construction materials with the provision of specialised education, skills and training would transform the way construction sector currently operates and create opportunities for new business development. Moreover, a typology system developed based on the properties and lifetime of construction components is required in order to provide transparency and guidance in the way construction components are used and reused, in order to make them readily available to designers and contractors. Smart technologies carry the potential to aid the development and uptake of this system by enabling efficient tracking, storage and archiving, while providing information relevant to the environmental and economic savings that can be regained, enabling also better decision-making during construction and deconstruction works. However, further research is required in order to investigate the opportunities and constraints of the use of these technologies.

Concepts: Investment, Reuse, Recycling, Construction, Building, Emission standard, Infrastructure, Architect


A multifunctional metal-organic framework (1) containing 24-nuclear zinc nanocages shows high solvent- and pH-stability. Compound 1 can be employed as a catalyst for the conversion of CO2with aziridines or epoxides, which can be reused at least ten times just by a simple and rapid method. The PXRD of compound 1 after ten recyclings remains well consistent with the original one. The inductively coupled plasma measurement of a reaction filtrate revealed that only trace amount leakage of Zn2+was observed, indicating that the framework did not collapse after recyclings. Compound 1 can effectively catalyze the cycloaddition reaction of CO2and five aziridines or five epoxides with different substituent groups. To our knowledge, this is the first multifunctional MOF-based catalyst used for the conversion of CO2with aziridines or epoxides. Furthermore, luminescence investigations reveal that compound 1 can also act as a luminescent probe for chromium(vi) anion species, which is seriously harmful to humans and the environment. After five cycle tests, the PXRD of compound 1 is still in accordance with the original one, indicating that compound 1 can serve as a circulatory luminescent probe for Cr(vi) anions.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Chemical reaction, Hydrogen, Natural environment, Solid, Ion source, Reuse, Recycling


Textiles waste is relatively small in terms of weight as compared to other waste streams, but it has a large impact on human health and environment, and its rate is increasing due to the ‘fast fashion’ model. In this paper, we examine the French national programme for managing post-consumer textiles and clothing through a case study research. To date, France is the only country in the world implementing an extended producer responsibility (EPR) policy for end-of-use clothing, linen and shoes. The case highlights the benefits of using an EPR policy and provides interesting insights about the challenges faced by the textiles waste sector. For instance, the EPR policy has contributed to a threefold increase in the collection and recycling rates of post-consumer textiles since 2006. In addition, the material recovery rate of the post-consumer textiles can reach 90%, 50% of which can be directly reused. However, the ‘reuse’ stream is facing some challenges because its main market is in Africa and many African countries are considering banning the import of used textiles to encourage a competitive textiles industry locally and internationally. The EPR policy shows a great potential to identify new markets for ‘reuse’ and to improve the textiles waste sector. Such an EPR policy also could drive societies to financially support innovation and research to provide feasible solutions for fashion producers to adopt eco-design and design for recycling practices. This paper provides guidance for policy makers, shareholders, researchers and practitioners interested in diverting post-consumer textiles and clothing waste from landfills and promoting circular textiles transition.

Concepts: Scientific method, Africa, Case study, Reuse, Recycling, Clothing, Waste management concepts, Fashion


An innovative recycling process for thermoset polymer composites developed by Connora Technologies (Hayward, CA, USA) was studied. The process efficacy has already been tested, and it is currently working at the plant level. The main aspect investigated in the present paper was the environmental impact by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. Because of the need to recycle and recover materials at their end of life, the Connora process creates a great innovation in the market of epoxy composites, as they are notoriously not recyclable. Connora Technologies developed a relatively gentle chemical recycling process that induces the conversion of thermosets into thermoplastics. The LCA demonstrated that low environmental burdens are associated with the process itself and, furthermore, impacts are avoided due to the recovery of the epoxy-composite constituents (fibres and matrix). A carbon fibre (CF) epoxy-composite panel was produced through Vacuum Resin Transfer Moulding (VRTM) and afterwards treated using the Connora recycling process. The LCA results of both the production and the recycling phases are reported.

Concepts: Plastic, Composite material, Sustainability, Reuse, Recycling, Life cycle assessment, Design for X, Design for Environment