Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the “citation benefit”. Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13%) more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a dataset by year 2, 100 by year 4, and more than 150 data reuse papers had been published by year 5. Data reuse was distributed across a broad base of datasets: a very conservative estimate found that 20% of the datasets deposited between 2003 and 2007 had been reused at least once by third parties. Conclusion. After accounting for other factors affecting citation rate, we find a robust citation benefit from open data, although a smaller one than previously reported. We conclude there is a direct effect of third-party data reuse that persists for years beyond the time when researchers have published most of the papers reusing their own data. Other factors that may also contribute to the citation benefit are considered. We further conclude that, at least for gene expression microarray data, a substantial fraction of archived datasets are reused, and that the intensity of dataset reuse has been steadily increasing since 2003.
This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from 6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7 % in 2010 after the Total Food Waste Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00. Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery of all MSW.
In this study, chitosan and nano-chitosan were used as flocculants agents for harvesting microalga Nannochloropsis sp. chitosan was modified to nano-chitosan by crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate. The effects of type and dosage of flocculants and the pH of the culture were investigated on biomass recovery. Optimum dosages for both bio-flocculants were found. The results showed that the dosage of flocculant consumption decreases by 40% and biomass recovery increases by 9% when nano-chitosan instead of chitosan is used as flocculant agent. Also, the recycled water from the harvesting process was reused which increases the growth of microalgae by about 7%. Finally, the cost analysis of harvesting process showed the feasibility of using nano-chitosan as flocculation agent.
The first chemical method for resolution of N,C-unprotected β-amino acids was developed through enantioselective formation and disassembly of nickel(II) complexes under operationally convenient conditions. The specially designed chiral ligands are inexpensive and can be quantitatively recycled along with isolation of the target β-substituted-β-amino acids in good yields and excellent enantioselectivity. The method features a broad synthetic generality including β-aryl, β-heteroaryl, and β-alkyl-derived β-amino acids. The procedure is easily scaled up, and was used for the synthetically and economically advanced preparation of the anti-diabetic drug sitagliptin.
The construction of reliable, reusable clinical code sets is essential when re-using Electronic Health Record (EHR) data for research. Yet code set definitions are rarely transparent and their sharing is almost non-existent. There is a lack of methodological standards for the management (construction, sharing, revision and reuse) of clinical code sets which needs to be addressed to ensure the reliability and credibility of studies which use code sets.
Leachable vanadium (V) from steel production residues poses a potential environmental hazard due to its mobility and toxicity under the highly alkaline pH conditions that characterise these leachates. This work aims to test the efficiency of anion exchange resins for vanadium removal and recovery from steel slag leachates at a representative average pH of 11.5. Kinetic studies were performed to understand the vanadium sorption process. The sorption kinetics were consistent with a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The isotherm data cannot differentiate between the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity (Langmuir value qmax) was 27 mg V g(-1) resin. In column anion exchange, breakthrough was only 14% of the influent concentration after passing 90 L of steel slag leachate with 2 mg L(-1) V through the column. When eluting the column 57-72% of vanadium was recovered from the resin with 2 M NaOH. Trials on the reuse of the anion exchange resin showed it could be reused 20 times without loss of efficacy, and on average 69% of V was recovered during regeneration. The results document for the first time the use of anion exchange resins to remove vanadium from steel slag leachate. As an environmental contaminant, removal of V from leachates may be an obligation for long-term management requirements of steel slag repositories. Vanadium removal coupled with the recovery can potentially be used to offset long-term legacy treatment costs.
A methodology consisting in carrying out enantioselective nucleophilic 1,2-additions (ees up to 97%) from cheap, easily accessible, and never described before, chiral lithium amido zincates is presented. These multicomponent reactants auto-assemble when mixing, in a 1 : 1 ratio, a homoleptic diorganozinc (R2Zn) with a chiral lithium amide (CLA). The latter, obtained after a single reductive amination, plays the role of the chiral inductor and is fully recoverable thanks to a simple acid-base wash, allowing being recycled and re-use without loss of stereochemical information.
Material recycling often leads to environmental benefits when compared to thermal treatments or landfilling and is therefore positioned in the waste hierarchy as the third priority after waste prevention and reuse. To assess the environmental impacts of recycling and the related substitution of primary material, linear steady-state models of physical flows are typically used. In reality, the environmental burdens of collection and recycling are likely to be a non-linear function of the collection rate. This short communication aims at raising awareness of the non-linear effects in separate collection systems and presents the first non-linear quantitative model for PET bottle recycling. The influence of collection rates on the material quality and the transport network is analyzed based on the data collected from industrial partners. The results highlight that in the present Swiss recycling system a very high collection rate close to 100% yields optimum environmental benefits with respect to global warming. The empirical data, however, provided indications for a decrease in the marginal environmental benefit of recycling. This can be seen as an indication that tipping points may exist for other recycling systems, in which the environmental benefits from substituting primary materials are less pronounced than they are for PET.
Application of pilot scale slurry type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H2O2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results illustrate that, Ag decorated TiO2 shows two-fold increase in COD abatement than pure TiO2. Better COD abatement was observed under acidic conditions and addition of H2O2 significantly increases the rate of COD abatement. Within two hours, 99% COD abatement was observed when the reactor was operated with optimum operational conditions. Silver ion lixiviate was also monitored during the experiment and is five times less than the permissible limits. The catalyst shows good stability even after 5 cycles without much loss in its photocatalytic activity. The results clearly reveal that pilot scale slurry tubular solar photocatalytic reactors could be used as a cost effective method to treat grey water and the resulting clean water could be reused for various non potable purposes thus conserving precious water resource. This study favors decentralized greywater treatment and possible scaling up of solar photocatalytic reactor using locally available materials for the potential reuse of treated water.
Candida glabrata is the second most common species causing candidiasis. C. glabrata can also readily acquire resistance to azole drugs, complicating its treatment. Here we add to the collection of disruption markers to aid in genetic analysis of this yeast. This new construct is marked with a nourseothricin resistance cassette that produces an estrogen-activated form of Cre recombinase in a methionine-regulated manner. This allows eviction and reuse of this cassette in a facile manner. Using this new disruption marker, we have constructed a series of strains lacking different members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane transporter proteins. The presence of 15 MFS proteins that may contribute to drug resistance in C. glabrata placed a premium on development of a marker that could easily be reused to construct multiple gene-disrupted strains. Employing this recyclable marker, we found that loss of the MFS transporter-encoding geneFLR1caused a dramatic increase in diamide resistance (as seen before), and deletion of two other MFS-encoding genes did not influence this phenotype. Interestingly, loss ofFLR1led to an increase in levels of oxidized glutathione, suggesting a possible molecular explanation for this enhanced oxidant sensitivity. We also found that while overproduction of the transcription factor Yap1 could suppress the fluconazole sensitivity caused by loss of the important ATP-binding cassette transporter protein Cdr1, this required the presence ofFLR1.IMPORTANCEExport of drugs is a problem for chemotherapy of infectious organisms. A class of membrane proteins called the major facilitator superfamily contains a large number of proteins that often elevate drug resistance when overproduced but do not impact this phenotype when the gene is removed. We wondered if this absence of a phenotype for a disruption allele might be due to the redundancy of this group of membrane proteins. We describe the production of an easy-to-use recyclable marker cassette that will allow construction of strains lacking multiple members of the MFS family of transporter proteins.