Concept: Retrograde ejaculation
In non-azoospermic patients with low semen volume (LSV), looking for partial retrograde ejaculation (PRE) by searching sperm in the postejaculatory urine (PEU) is required. The use of a retro-ejaculatory index (R-ratio) was suggested to define PRE, but none of the studies indicated a specific threshold above which PRE must be considered. Our objective was to propose a threshold value for the R-ratio as indicative of PRE in patients with LSV selected to be devoid of any known causes or risk factors for retrograde ejaculation or LSV. Among our data base (2000-2009) including 632 patients with PEU, 245 male patients from infertile couples who had had a first semen analysis with LSV (< 2mL) and a second semen analysis associated with PEU, were selected on the previous criteria. A prospective control group was randomly constituted (2007-2008) of 162 first consulting male patients from infertile couples, with a normal semen volume (≥ 2mL) on a first semen analysis and who accepted to collect PEU with their usual second semen analysis, selected on the previous criteria. To define an R-ratio threshold indicative of PRE, we used a ROC curve analysis and a regression tree based on a classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm. Of the 245 LSV patients, 146 still presented low semen volume (< 2 mL) on the second semen analysis. From the use of the CART algorithm, two low (1.5% and 2.8%) and two high R-values (7.1% and 8.3%) were defined, according to the lower reference limit for semen volume of 2.0 mL (WHO 1999) or 1.5 mL (WHO 2010) respectively. As only one or no patient with normal semen volume was observed above the two high R-values, we suggest an R-value higher than the range of [7.1-8.3]% as indicative of PRE until confirmation by a prospective multicenter study.
A 19 year old presented with a progressive decline in ejaculate volume over 2 weeks, followed by a complete absence of ejaculate emission. A post-ejaculatory urine specimen demonstrated spermatozoa confirming a diagnosis of retrograde ejaculation. Investigations revealed a raised blood glucose level of 24.5 mmol/L and HbA1c >15%, with positive tests for anti-GAD antibodies and anti-IA2 antibodies consistent with a diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Retrograde ejaculation in diabetes is associated with autonomic neuropathy and is a late feature of the disease. This case is unique with retrograde ejaculation being the primary presenting symptom of Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Retrograde ejaculation (RE) and erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes mellitus (DM), but the prevalence of RE among DM patients is unknown. A prospective, blinded case-control study comparing men with DM with matched controls according to RE and erectile dysfunction was performed. Twenty-seven men with DM matched the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study, and of these 26 delivered an ejaculate. We were able to recruit 18 matching controls, and of these 16 delivered an ejaculate. Nine of 26 men with DM who delivered an ejaculate had RE, whereas none of 16 controls had RE (p < 0.01). The mean duration of DM was longer for DM patients with RE (20 years) compared with DM patients in whom RE could not be demonstrated (13 years), but the difference was not statistically significant. RE could not be associated with BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, Haemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, or s-testosterone. Diabetics suffering from RE more frequently exhibited erectile dysfunction compared with non-diabetics and diabetics without RE, and the last-mentioned group again more frequently than controls. These findings could not be explained by use of antihypertensive drugs. Whereas none of the included control participants showed signs of abnormal ejaculation, every third man with DM exhibited retrograde ejaculation. It is important to be aware of this association, and that post-ejaculatory urine is routinely analysed from aspermic fertility clinic attendants and diabetics with low ejaculate volumes.
Study Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cohort data. Objective Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine. Detailed and comprehensive descriptions of intra- and postoperative complications of ALIF are surprisingly limited in the literature. In this report, we describe our experience with a team model for ALIF and report all complications occurring in our patient series. Methods Patients were prospectively enrolled between January 2009 and January 2013 by a combined spine surgeon and vascular surgeon team. All patients underwent an open ALIF using an anterior approach to the lumbosacral spine. Results From the 227 ALIF cases, mean operative blood loss was 103 mL, ranging from 30 to 900 mL. Mean operative time was 78 minutes. The average length of stay was 5.2 days. Intraoperative vascular injury requiring primary repair with suturing occurred in 15 patients (6.6%). There were 2 cases of postoperative retroperitoneal hematoma. Three patients (1.3%) had incisional hernia requiring revision surgery; 7 (3.1%) patients had prolonged ileus (>7 days) managed conservatively. Four patients described retrograde ejaculation. Sympathetic dysfunction occurred in 15 (6.6%) patients. There were 5 (2.2%) cases of superficial wound infection treated with oral antibiotics, with no deep wound infections requiring reoperation or intravenous therapy. There were no mortalities in this series. Conclusions ALIF is a safe procedure when performed by a combined vascular surgeon and spine surgeon team with acceptably low complication rates. Our series confirms that the team approach results in short operative times and length of stay, with rapid control of intraoperative vessel injury and low overall blood loss.
Ejaculation consists of the emission of semen from seminal vesicles and prostate, followed by expulsion. Ejaculatory dysfunction may take several forms including premature ejaculation, delayed or anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and painful ejaculation. Ejaculation is what we can see whereas orgasm is what we feel. The presence of ejaculate does not indicate the ability to experience orgasm. Hence, for the purpose of this work we consider orgasm and ejaculation as 2 separate neurobiological phenomena.
The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of silodosin in medical expulsive therapy (MET) for ureteral stones. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of silodosin in MET for ureteral calculi. We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, Central (the Cochrane Library, Issue 1,2013), Google Scholar from the inception to March 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing silodosin with tamsulosin or control on ureteral stone passage. Eight RCTs with a total of 1145 ureteral stone patients (300 patients in the control group, 287 patients in the tamsulosin group, 558 patients in the silodosin group) were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with control, silodosin significantly improved expulsion rate of distal ureteral stones (RR: 1.42; 95% CI, 1.21-1.67; P < 0.0001), while there was no significant difference between silodosin and the control in expulsion rate of proximal (RR: 0.99; 95% CI, 0.69-1.43; P < 0.97) or mid (RR: 1.13; 95% CI, 0.60-2.16; P < 0.0001) ureteral stones. There was no significant difference between silodosin and tamsulosin in terms of expulsion time (WMD: -2.47; 95% CI, -5.32 to 0.39; P = 0.09), analgesic use (WMD: -0.39; 95% CI, -0.91 to 0.13; P = 0.14) and retrograde ejaculation rate (RR: 1.85; 95% CI, 0.95-3.59; P = 0.07) in MET for distal ureteral stones. However, silodosin provided a significantly higher expulsion rate (RR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.37; P < 0.0001) than tamsulosin for distal ureteral stones. Silodosin significantly improved expulsion rate of distal ureteral stones and was clinically superior to tamsulosin. Silodosin was ineffective in MET for proximal and mid ureteral stones. More RCT studies are needed to compare the efficacy of silodosin versus tamsulosin in MET for distal ureteral stones.
The use of pseudoephedrine, an alpha agonist, for the treatment of retrograde ejaculation is well-known, however, there is no clear consensus from the literature regarding its efficacy and treatment protocol. We evaluated the efficacy of pseudoephedrine treatment in patients with retrograde ejaculation, utilizing a yet undescribed short-period treatment protocol. Twenty men were medically treated with pseudoephedrine for retrograde ejaculation between January 2010 and May 2016 (12 with complete retrograde ejaculation and 8 with partial retrograde ejaculation). All patients had a semen analysis and post-ejaculatory urinalysis before and after treatment. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 mg of pseudoephedrine every 6 h on the day before semen analysis and two more 60 mg doses on the day of the semen analysis. Diabetes was the most common etiology for complete retrograde ejaculation (60%), whereas an idiopathic cause was the most common etiology for partial retrograde ejaculation (82%). Of the 12 complete retrograde ejaculation patients treated with pseudoephedrine prior to semen analysis, 7 (58.3%) recovered spermatozoa in the antegrade ejaculate, with a mean total sperm count of 273.5 ± 172.5 million. Of the eight patients with partial retrograde ejaculation, five (62.5%) had a ≥50% increase in the antegrade total sperm count. In this group, the mean total sperm count increased from 26.9 ± 8.5 million before treatment to 84.2 ± 24.6 million after treatment, whereas the percentage of spermatozoa in the urine declined from 43.2 ± 9% to 17 ± 10%, respectively (both p < 0.05). Overall, in men with retrograde ejaculation treated with a pseudoephedrine regimen prior to ejaculation, some improvement in seminal parameters occurred in 14 (70%) patients, with 10 patients (38.5% of all patients) achieving antegrade total sperm counts over 39 million.
Retrograde ejaculation can have anatomical, neurogenic, or pharmacological causes. Among these factors, malformation of the prostatic urethra is an uncommon cause.
Complications associated with the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein in the lumbar spine include retrograde ejaculation, ectopic bone formation, vertebral osteolysis and subsidence, postoperative radiculitis, and hematoma and seroma. These complications are controversial and remain widely debated. This article discusses the reported complications and possible implications for the practicing spine surgeon. Understanding the complications associated with the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein and the associated controversies allows for informed decision making by both the patient and the surgeon. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].
Ejaculatory disorders lie along a conceptual continuum with premature ejaculation (PE) anchoring one end, normal ejaculation in the center and difficulties with delayed or anejaculation at the opposite end. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) can occur at any point on the continuum. This manuscript defines the ejaculatory dysfunctions, reviews the anatomy and physiology of orgasm and ejaculation and summarizes the pharmacological, psychological and combined treatment approaches to ejaculatory dysfunctions.