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Concept: Retailing


Consumption of fruit and vegetables is important for health, but is often lower than recommended and tends to be socio-economically patterned with lower consumption in more deprived groups. In 2008, the English Department of Health introduced the Change4Life convenience store programme. This aimed to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables in deprived, urban areas by providing existing convenience stores with a range of support and branded point-of-sale materials and equipment.

Concepts: English people, Urban area, Shopping, Convenience, Convenience store, Retailing


Evidence-based metrics are needed to inform urban policy to create healthy walkable communities. Most active living research has developed metrics of the environment around residential addresses, ignoring other important walking locations. Therefore, this study examined: metrics for built environment features surrounding local shopping centres, (known in Melbourne, Australia as neighbourhood activity centres (NACs) which are typically anchored by a supermarket); the association between NACs and transport walking; and, policy compliance for supermarket provision.

Concepts: Retailing, Walkability, Walking, Sustainability, Urban studies and planning, Urban studies and planning terminology, Natural environment, Urban design


Vinpocetine and picamilon are drugs prescribed in many countries to treat a variety of cerebrovascular disorders. In the United States, vinpocetine and picamilon have never been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, but they are both available for sale directly to consumers as dietary supplements. We designed our study to determine the accuracy of supplement labels with regard to the presence and quantity of vinpocetine and picamilon. A validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode-array method was developed for the quantification of vinpocetine and picamilon. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase (C-18) column, photodiode array detection, and water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Vinpocetine and picamilon were detected at concentrations as low as 10 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The presence of vinpocetine and picamilon was confirmed using reference standards. Twenty-three supplements labelled as containing vinpocetine were available for sale at two large supplement retail chains; 17 contained vinpocetine with quantities ranging from 0.3 to 32 mg per recommended daily serving. No vinpocetine was detected in six of the sampled supplements. The supplement label implied that vinpocetine was a constituent of lesser periwinkle in three of the supplements. Of the 31 picamilon supplements available for sale from a variety of retailers: 30 contained picamilon in quantities ranging from 2.7 to 721.5 mg per recommended daily serving. We found that consumers cannot obtain accurate information from supplement labels regarding the presence or quantity of vinpocetine and picamilon. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Sale, Measurement, Retailing, United States


Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a ‘silent’ reformulation strategy, where a retail chain’s private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product.

Concepts: Food preservation, Flavor, Sugar, Supermarket, Retailing, Carbohydrate, Nutrition, Food


Neighbourhood retailing of tobacco products has been implicated in affecting smoking prevalence rates. Long-term smoking usually begins in adolescence and tobacco control strategies have often focused on regulating ‘child spaces’, such as areas in proximity to schools. This cross-sectional study examines the association between adolescent smoking behaviour and tobacco retail outlet density around home and school environments in Scotland.

Concepts: Tobacco smoking, Retailing


This study theorized and examined the influence of the interaction between Service-Oriented high-performance work systems (HPWSs) and service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate. Using a sample of 569 employees and 142 managers in footwear retail stores, we found that Service-Oriented HPWSs and service leadership reduced the influences of one another on collective customer knowledge and service climate, such that the positive influence of service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when Service-Oriented HPWSs were lower than when they were higher or the positive influence of Service-Oriented HPWSs on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when service leadership was lower than when it was higher. We further proposed and found that collective customer knowledge and service climate were positively related to objective financial outcomes through service performance. Implications for the literature and managerial practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Copyright, American Psychological Association, All rights reversed, Retailing, Leadership, Social influence, All rights reserved, Management


Clinical laboratory tests are now being prescribed and made directly available to consumers through retail outlets in the USA. Concerns with these test have been raised regarding the uncertainty of testing methods used in these venues and a lack of open, scientific validation of the technical accuracy and clinical equivalency of results obtained through these services.

Concepts: Medicine, Chemistry, Retailing, Evaluation methods, Test method, Medical laboratory, Laboratory, Experiment


The vitamin D content of eggs from three retail outlets was measured over five months to examine the effects of production system (organic vs. free range vs. indoor), supermarket and purchase date on the concentration of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Results demonstrated a higher vitamin D3 concentration in free range (57.2±3.1μg/kg) and organic (57.2±3.2μg/kg) compared with indoor (40.2±3.1μg/kg) (P<0.001), which was perhaps related to increased vitamin D synthesis by birds having more access to sunlight, while 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was higher (P<0.05) only in organic eggs. The interaction (P<0.05) between system and supermarket for both forms of vitamin D may relate to some incorrect labelling. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was higher (P<0.05) in July and September than in August. The results indicate variations in vitamin D concentrations in eggs from different sources, thus highlighting the importance of accurate labelling.

Concepts: Production system, Concentration, Saturation, Chemistry, Vitamins, Supermarket, Retailing, Vitamin D


Data are needed to evaluate community interventions to reduce consumption of sugary drinks. Supermarket sales data can be used for this purpose.

Concepts: Food, Retailing, Alcoholic beverage


Product packaging has long been used by the tobacco industry to target consumers and manipulate product perceptions. This study examines the extent to which cigarillo packaging influences perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal.

Concepts: Packaging and labeling, Olfaction, Retailing