SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Respiratory disease

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Frailty is an important clinical syndrome that is consistently associated with adverse outcomes in older people. The relevance of frailty to chronic respiratory disease and its management is unknown.

Concepts: Cohort study, Medicine, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Respiratory disease, Death, Pulmonology, Asthma

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Exposure to parental separation or divorce during childhood has been associated with an increased risk for physical morbidity during adulthood. Here we tested the hypothesis that this association is primarily attributable to separated parents who do not communicate with each other. We also examined whether early exposure to separated parents in conflict is associated with greater viral-induced inflammatory response in adulthood and in turn with increased susceptibility to viral-induced upper respiratory disease. After assessment of their parents' relationship during their childhood, 201 healthy volunteers, age 18-55 y, were quarantined, experimentally exposed to a virus that causes a common cold, and monitored for 5 d for the development of a respiratory illness. Monitoring included daily assessments of viral-specific infection, objective markers of illness, and local production of proinflammatory cytokines. Adults whose parents lived apart and never spoke during their childhood were more than three times as likely to develop a cold when exposed to the upper respiratory virus than adults from intact families. Conversely, individuals whose parents were separated but communicated with each other showed no increase in risk compared with those from intact families. These differences persisted in analyses adjusted for potentially confounding variables (demographics, current socioeconomic status, body mass index, season, baseline immunity to the challenge virus, affectivity, and childhood socioeconomic status). Mediation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that greater susceptibility to respiratory infectious illness among the offspring of noncommunicating parents was attributable to a greater local proinflammatory response to infection.

Concepts: Inflammation, Respiratory disease, Asthma, Infection, Interferon, Influenza, Upper respiratory tract infection, Common cold

36

The use of direct-to-consumer telehealth, in which a patient has access to a physician via telephone or videoconferencing, is growing rapidly. A key attraction of this type of telehealth for health plans and employers is the potential savings involved in replacing physician office and emergency department visits with less expensive virtual visits. However, increased convenience may tap into unmet demand for health care, and new utilization may increase overall health care spending. We used commercial claims data on over 300,000 patients from three years (2011-13) to explore patterns of utilization and spending for acute respiratory illnesses. We estimated that 12 percent of direct-to-consumer telehealth visits replaced visits to other providers, and 88 percent represented new utilization. Net annual spending on acute respiratory illness increased $45 per telehealth user. Direct-to-consumer telehealth may increase access by making care more convenient for certain patients, but it may also increase utilization and health care spending.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Health, Respiratory disease, Patient, Hospital, Illness

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate sweet-flavoured electronic cigarette (EC) liquids for the presence of diacetyl (DA) and acetyl propionyl (AP), which are chemicals approved for food use but are associated with respiratory disease when inhaled.

Concepts: Respiratory disease, Respiratory physiology, Cigarette, Respiratory system, Inhalation, Inhalant, Associated Press

28

Inflammatory lung diseases are highly complex in respect of pathogenesis and relationships between inflammation, clinical disease and response to treatment. Sophisticated large-scale analytical methods to quantify gene expression (transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics), lipids (lipidomics) and metabolites (metabolomics) in the lungs, blood and urine are now available to identify biomarkers that define disease in terms of combined clinical, physiological and patho-biological abnormalities. The aspiration is that these approaches will improve diagnosis, i.e., define pathological phenotypes, and facilitate the monitoring of disease and therapy and, also, unravel underlying molecular pathways. Biomarker studies can either select pre-defined biomarker(s) measured by specific methods or apply an “unbiased” approach involving detection platforms that are indiscriminate in focus. This article reviews the technologies presently available to study biomarkers of lung disease within the ‘omics field. The contributions of the individual 'omics analytical platforms to the field of respiratory diseases are summarised, with the goal of providing background on their respective abilities to contribute to systems medicine-based studies of lung disease.

Concepts: Gene, Cancer, Diseases and disorders, Respiratory disease, Pulmonology, Proteomics, Functional genomics, Systems biology

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Incorrect use of inhaler devices remains an obstacle for respiratory diseases management. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of inhaler technique errors; to determine the devices perceived as the easiest and favourite to use; to study the association of device type, demographics and patient preferences with inhaler technique (IT).

Concepts: Diseases and disorders, Respiratory disease, Asthma, Device, The Association, Obstructive lung disease, Inhaler

25

Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Cancer, Diseases and disorders, Respiratory disease, Pulmonology, Asthma, Fetus, Obstructive lung disease

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Abstract Context: Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) is traditionally used in hyperactive respiratory disorders.

Concepts: Respiratory disease, Obstructive lung disease, Vitex, Vitex negundo

25

The Rotterdam Study is a prospective cohort study ongoing since 1990 in the city of Rotterdam in The Netherlands. The study targets cardiovascular, endocrine, hepatic, neurological, ophthalmic, psychiatric, dermatological, otolaryngological, locomotor, and respiratory diseases. As of 2008, 14,926 subjects aged 45 years or over comprise the Rotterdam Study cohort. The findings of the Rotterdam Study have been presented in over 1200 research articles and reports (see www.erasmus-epidemiology.nl/rotterdamstudy ). This article gives the rationale of the study and its design. It also presents a summary of the major findings and an update of the objectives and methods.

Concepts: Cohort study, Medicine, Epidemiology, Respiratory disease, Netherlands, Major, The Hague, Rotterdam

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Silicosis is one of the occupational respiratory diseases most commonly encountered in our setting. It is caused by inhalation of crystalline silica that triggers a fibrotic response in the lung parenchyma. It presents as diffuse interstitial disease and clinical expression ranges from asymptomatic forms to chronic respiratory failure. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and radiological findings. There is no effective treatment, and once diagnosed, the patient must avoid all sources of occupational exposure. In these guidelines, the clinical, radiological and functional aspects of silicosis are reviewed, and strategies for diagnosis, monitoring and classification of patients are proposed, along with recommendations regarding the occupational implications of this disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Cancer, Diseases and disorders, Respiratory disease, Pulmonology, Medical terms, Patient