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Concept: Respiratory arrest

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Approximately 300,000 people suffer sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually in the United States. Less than 30% of out-of-hospital victims receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) despite the American Heart Association training over 12 million laypersons annually to conduct CPR. New engaging learning methods are needed for CPR education, especially in schools. Massively multiplayer virtual worlds (MMVW) offer platforms for serious games that are promising learning methods that take advantage of the computer capabilities of today’s youth (ie, the digital native generation).

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Respiratory arrest, American Heart Association

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Background During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the interruption of manual chest compressions for rescue breathing reduces blood flow and possibly survival. We assessed whether outcomes after continuous compressions with positive-pressure ventilation differed from those after compressions that were interrupted for ventilations at a ratio of 30 compressions to two ventilations. Methods This cluster-randomized trial with crossover included 114 emergency medical service (EMS) agencies. Adults with non-trauma-related cardiac arrest who were treated by EMS providers received continuous chest compressions (intervention group) or interrupted chest compressions (control group). The primary outcome was the rate of survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included the modified Rankin scale score (on a scale from 0 to 6, with a score of ≤3 indicating favorable neurologic function). CPR process was measured to assess compliance. Results Of 23,711 patients included in the primary analysis, 12,653 were assigned to the intervention group and 11,058 to the control group. A total of 1129 of 12,613 patients with available data (9.0%) in the intervention group and 1072 of 11,035 with available data (9.7%) in the control group survived until discharge (difference, -0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.5 to 0.1; P=0.07); 7.0% of the patients in the intervention group and 7.7% of those in the control group survived with favorable neurologic function at discharge (difference, -0.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.4 to 0.1, P=0.09). Hospital-free survival was significantly shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (mean difference, -0.2 days; 95% CI, -0.3 to -0.1; P=0.004). Conclusions In patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, continuous chest compressions during CPR performed by EMS providers did not result in significantly higher rates of survival or favorable neurologic function than did interrupted chest compressions. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ROC CCC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01372748 .).

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, First aid, Emergency medical services, Drowning, Artificial respiration, Respiratory arrest

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To assess the sensitivity and false positive rate (FPR) of neurological examination and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) to predict poor outcome in adult patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

Concepts: Type I and type II errors, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Respiratory arrest

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Many patients who suffer cardiac arrest do not respond to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There is growing interest in utilizing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) in the management of refractory cardiac arrest. We describe our preliminary experiences in establishing an E-CPR program for refractory cardiac arrest in Melbourne, Australia.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Respiratory arrest

10

Data of the TraumaRegister DGU® were analyzed to derive survival rates, neurological outcome and prognostic factors of patients who had suffered traumatic cardiac arrest in the early treatment phase.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Cardiac tamponade, Drowning, Respiratory arrest

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To evaluate the outcome of drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia, and to determine distinct criteria for termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in drowned children with hypothermia and absence of spontaneous circulation.

Concepts: Cohort study, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, First aid, Drowning, Artificial respiration, Respiratory arrest

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-Patients successfully resuscitated by paramedics from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) often suffer severe neurological injury. Laboratory and observational clinical reports have suggested that induction of therapeutic hypothermia during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may improve neurological outcomes. One technique for induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia during CPR is a rapid infusion of large-volume cold crystalloid fluid.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Emergency medical services, Drowning, Respiratory arrest

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Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) mortality rates remain very high with poor neurological outcome in survivors. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is one of the treatments of refractory OHCA. This study used data from the mobile intensive care unit (MOICU) as part of the emergency medical system of Paris, and included all consecutive patients treated with ECPR (including pre-hospital ECPR) from 2011 to 2015 for the treatment of refractory OHCA, comparing two historical ECPR management strategies.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, First aid, Emergency medical services, Defibrillation, Drowning, Respiratory arrest

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Current guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasise that emergency medical service (EMS) dispatchers should identify sudden cardiac arrest (CA) with abnormal breathing and assist lay rescuers performing CPR. However, lay rescuers description of abnormal breathing may be inconsistent, and it is unclear how EMS dispatchers provide instruction for CPR based on the breathing status of the CA victims described by laypersons.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, First aid, Emergency medical services, Defibrillation, Drowning, Respiratory arrest

5

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving technique for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Despite advances in resuscitation science, basic life support remains a critical factor in determining outcomes. The American Heart Association recommendations for adult basic life support incorporate the most recently published evidence and serve as the basis for education and training for laypeople and healthcare providers who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Concepts: Heart, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Respiratory arrest, American Heart Association, Basic life support