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Concept: Resource allocation

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BACKGROUND: Medicare Part A provides similar resources for coverage of inpatient hospitalization costs for patients treated with total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). This is based on an assumption that TSA and RSA are used to treat similar patient populations with comparable disease severity. However, no objective clinical information is available to support this resource allocation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the disease severity and subsequent improvement from primary TSA, primary RSA, and revision arthroplasty (TSA and RSA). METHODS: From March 2004 through May 2006, 174 shoulders (87 primary TSA, 55 primary RSA, and 32 revision cases) were prospectively studied using Biodex (Biodex Medical Systems, Shirley, NY, USA) isometric strength and standardized video range of motion measurements performed by an independent third-party observer at 1 week before surgery and at an average of 49 months (range, 32-69 months) postoperatively. Patient impairment ratings were calculated using the Florida Impairment Guidelines. RESULTS: Primary TSA had the lowest average preoperative impairment (21%), and revision arthroplasty had the highest (28%). All patients demonstrated improvement in the parameters tested. At an average 49 months, all 3 groups demonstrated a similar reduction in impairment ratings (TSA: 21% to 10%; RSA: 25% to 15%; revision arthroplasties: 28% to 20%). CONCLUSION: There are distinct differences in preoperative disease severity among patients undergoing primary TSA, primary RSA, and revision arthroplasty. Greater impairment is evident in patients undergoing a revision arthroplasty. However, all groups may be expected to achieve improvements and maintain these improvements 4 years postoperatively.

Concepts: Improve, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Range of motion, Isometric exercise, Resource allocation, Allocation of resources

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European countries are facing increasing pressures on their water resources despite stringent regulations and systematic efforts on environmental protection. In this context, research and innovation play a strategic role reinforcing the efficiency of water policies. The present study provides a multilevel assessment of research and innovation practices in the field of water resource management in southern European countries and regions (more specifically; Cyprus, Albania, Poitou-Charentes in France, Andalusia in Spain and the North of Portugal). The analysis was based on a strategic framework aimed at gaining an insight of the current constraints, as well as of the existing and future technological solutions for a better water resource management. The triple helix model proved to be a useful analytical framework for assessing the efforts of different groups towards a common goal. The analysis proved the existence of a significant evolution in the use of technological tools to assist decision-making processes in integrated river basin management in all regions. Nevertheless, the absence of formal channels for knowledge and data exchange between researchers and water resource managers complicates the formers involvement in the decision-making process regarding water allocation. Both researchers and consultants emphasize the low availability of data, together with the need to advance on water resource economics as relevant constraints in the field. The SWOT analysis showed similar concerns among the participating regions and provided a battery of effective projects that resulted in the preparation of a Joint Action Plan.

Concepts: Water, Hydrology, Management, Strategic management, Europe, Water resources, Resource allocation, Resource management

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The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Egypt is the highest in the world, yet the total economic burden has not been quantified. Improved understanding of costs and the impact of treatment strategies will provide for better allocation of resources to reduce HCV disease and economic burden.

Concepts: Disease, Infection, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis C virus, Scarcity, Resource allocation, Economics terminology

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Determining the national epidemiologic trends of chemical ocular burns can assist physicians and policy makers in appropriate allocation of resources for treatment and prevention.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Policy, Scarcity, Oregon, Resource allocation, Allocation of resources

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The aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced simulation parameters, such as simulation exam scores, number of student self-evaluations, time to complete the simulation, and time to complete self-evaluations, served as predictors of dental students' preclinical performance. Students from three consecutive classes (n=282) at one U.S. dental school completed advanced simulation training and exams within the first four months of their dental curriculum. The students then completed conventional preclinical instruction and exams in operative dentistry (OD) and fixed prosthodontics (FP) courses, taken during the first and second years of dental school, respectively. Two advanced simulation exam scores (ASES1 and ASES2) were tested as predictors of performance in the two preclinical courses based on final course grades. ASES1 and ASES2 were found to be predictors of OD and FP preclinical course grades. Other advanced simulation parameters were not significantly related to grades in the preclinical courses. These results highlight the value of an early psychomotor skills assessment in dentistry. Advanced simulation scores may allow early intervention in students' learning process and assist in efficient allocation of resources such as faculty coverage and tutor assignment.

Concepts: Completeness, Education, Skill, Learning, Resource allocation, Final examination, Prosthodontics, Fixed prosthodontics

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The current study explored whether earned entitlement modulated the perception of fairness in three experiments. A preliminary resource earning task was added before players decided how to allocate the resource they jointly earned. Participants' decision in allocation, their responses to equal or unequal offers, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, and subjective ratings of fairness were all assessed in the current study. Behavioral results revealed that participants proposed more generous offers and showed enhanced tolerance to disadvantageous unequal offers from others when they performed worse than their presumed “partners,” while the reverse was true in the better-performance condition. The subjective ratings also indicated the effect of earned entitlement, such that worse performance was associated with higher perceived feelings of fairness for disadvantageous unequal offers, while better performance was associated with higher feelings of fairness for advantageous unequal offers. Equal offers were considered “fair” only when earned entitlement was even between two parties. In sum, the perception of fairness is modulated by an integration of egalitarian motivation and entitlement. In addition to justice principles, participants were also motivated by self-interest, such that participants placed more weight on entitlement in the better-performance condition than in the worse-performance condition. These results imply that earned entitlement is evaluated in a self-serving way.

Concepts: Psychology, Perception, Performance, Motivation, Inequality, Binary relation, Equality, Resource allocation

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Interest in international comparisons of critical illness is growing, but the utility of these studies is questionable. This review examines the challenges of international comparisons and highlights areas in which international data provide information relevant to clinical practice and resource allocation.

Concepts: Health care, Intensive care medicine, Intensive-care medicine, Resource allocation

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Understanding the economic value of health interventions is essential for policy makers to make informed resource allocation decisions. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize available information on the economic impact of children’s surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Concepts: Medicine, Economics, Resource allocation

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Childhood pneumonia is a major cause of childhood illness and the second leading cause of child death globally. Understanding the costs associated with the management of childhood pneumonia is essential for resource allocation and priority setting for child health.

Concepts: Economics, Child, Childhood, Resource allocation

11

Despite the prevalence of temporary financial assistance programs for those facing imminent homelessness, there is little evidence of their impact. Using data from Chicago from 2010 to 2012 (n = 4448), we demonstrate that the volatile nature of funding availability leads to good-as-random variation in the allocation of resources to individuals seeking assistance. To estimate impacts, we compare families that call when funds are available with those who call when they are not. We find that those calling when funding is available are 76% less likely to enter a homeless shelter. The per-person cost of averting homelessness through financial assistance is estimated as $10,300 and would be much less with better targeting of benefits to lower-income callers. The estimated benefits, not including many health benefits, exceed $20,000.

Concepts: Statistics, Homelessness, Finance, Funding, Resource allocation, Homeless shelter, Saint Francis House