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Concept: Resonator


Mechanical oscillators are present in almost every electronic device. They mainly consist of a resonating element providing an oscillating output with a specific frequency. Their ability to maintain a determined frequency in a specified period of time is the most important parameter limiting their implementation. Historically, quartz crystals have almost exclusively been used as the resonating element, but micromechanical resonators are increasingly being considered to replace them. These resonators are easier to miniaturize and allow for monolithic integration with electronics. However, as their dimensions shrink to the microscale, most mechanical resonators exhibit nonlinearities that considerably degrade the frequency stability of the oscillator. Here we demonstrate that, by coupling two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance, it is possible to stabilize the oscillation frequency of nonlinear self-sustaining micromechanical resonators. Our findings provide a new strategy for engineering low-frequency noise oscillators capitalizing on the intrinsic nonlinear phenomena of micromechanical resonators.

Concepts: Laser, Resonator, Oscillation, Wave, Feedback, Periodic function, Beat, Harmonic oscillator


The acoustic transmission coefficient of a resonant sonic crystal made of hollow bamboo rods is studied experimentally and theoretically. The plane wave expansion and multiple scattering theory (MST) are used to predict the bandgap in transmission coefficient of a non-resonant sonic crystal composed of rods without holes. The predicted results are validated against experimental data for the acoustic transmission coefficient. It is shown that a sonic crystal made from a natural material with some irregularities can exhibit a clear transmission bandgap. Then, the hollow bamboo rods are drilled between each node to create an array of Helmholtz resonators. It is shown that the presence of Helmholtz resonators leads to an additional bandgap in the low-frequency part of the transmission coefficient. The MST is modified in order to account for the resonance effect of the holes in the drilled bamboo rods. This resonant multiple scattering theory is validated experimentally and could be further used for the description and optimization of more complex resonant sonic crystals.

Concepts: Chemistry, Resonator, Scattering, Acoustics, Sound, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave


An optimization method, based on an acoustic waveguide model of chimney and resonator, was developed and tested by laboratory measurements of experimental chimney pipes. The dimensions of the chimney pipes are modified by the optimization algorithm until the specified fundamental frequency is achieved, and a predetermined harmonic partial overlaps with an eigenfrequency of the pipe. The experimental pipes were dimensioned by the optimization method for four different scenarios and were built by an organ builder. The measurements show excellent agreement between the measured sound spectra and calculated input admittances. The developed optimization method can be used for sound design of chimney pipes.

Concepts: Resonator, Acoustics, Test method, Sound, Resonance, Harmonic series, Waveguide, Resonator guitar


In diagnostic medicine, microbubbles are used as contrast agents to image blood flow and perfusion in large and small vessels. The small vessels (the capillaries) have diameters from a few hundred micrometers down to less than 10 μ m. The effect of such microvessels surrounding the oscillating microbubbles is currently unknown, and is important for increased sensitivity in contrast diagnostics and manipulation of microbubbles for localized drug release. Here, oscillations of microbubbles in tubes with inner diameters of 25 μm and 160 ¿m are investigated using an ultra-high-speed camera at frame rates of ~12 million frames/s. A reduction of up to 50% in the amplitude of oscillation was observed for microbubbles in the smaller 25-μm tube, compared with those in a 160-μm tube. In the 25-μm tube, at 50 kPa, a 48% increase of microbubbles that did not oscillate above the noise level of the system was observed, indicating increased oscillation damping. No difference was observed between the resonance frequency curves calculated for microbubbles in 25-μm and 160-μm tubes. Although previous investigators have shown the effect of microvessels on microbubble oscillation at high ultrasound pressures, the present study provides the first optical images of low-amplitude microbubble oscillations in small tubes.

Concepts: Resonator, Oscillation, Wave, Feedback, Beat, Harmonic oscillator, Simple harmonic motion


Photoperiodism, the ability to respond to seasonal varying day length with suitable life history changes, is a common trait in organisms that live in temperate regions. In most studied organisms, the circadian system appears to be the basis for photoperiodic time measurement. In insects this is still controversial: while some data indicate that the circadian system is causally involved in photoperiodism, others suggest that it may have a marginal or indirect role. Resonance experiments in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis have revealed a circadian component in photoperiodic time measurement compatible with a mechanism of internal coincidence where a two components oscillator system obtains information from dawn and dusk, respectively. The identity of this oscillator (or oscillators) is still unclear but possible candidates are the oscillating molecules of the auto-regulatory feedback loops in the heart of the circadian system. Here, we show for the first time the circadian oscillation of period and cryptochrome mRNAs in the heads of Nasonia females kept under short and long photoperiods. Period and cryptochrome mRNA levels display a synchronous oscillation in all conditions tested and persist, albeit with reduced amplitude, during the first day in constant light as well as constant darkness. More importantly, the signal for the period and cryptochrome oscillations is set by the light-on signal. These results, together with phylogenetic analyses, indicate that Nasonia’s period and cryptochrome display characteristics of homologous genes in other hymenopteran species.

Concepts: Laser, Resonator, Oscillation, Wave, Feedback, Circadian rhythm, Periodic function, Photoperiodism


The piezoelectric lateral-electric-field-excited resonator based on an X-cut lithium niobate plate has been investigated. Two rectangular electrodes were applied on one side of the plate so that the lateral electric field components were parallel to the crystallographic Y-axis and excited the longitudinal wave in the gap between the electrodes. The region around the electrodes was covered with a special absorbing varnish to suppress the spurious oscillations. The effect of the absorbing coating width on the resonant frequency and Q-factor of the lateral field-excited resonator was studied in detail with the series and parallel resonances for different width of the gap between the electrodes. As a result, we found experimentally the parameter regions of pure resonances and the boundaries of value variation for resonance frequency, Q-factor, and effective electromechanical coupling coefficient.

Concepts: Resonator, Wave, Resonance, Harmonic oscillator, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave, Optical cavity, Q factor


Transverse-electric (TE) resonant optical tunneling through an asymmetric, single-barrier potential system consisting of all passive materials in two-dimensional (2-D) glass/silver/TiO2/air configuration is quantified at a silver thickness of 35 nm. Resonant tunneling occurs when the incident condition corresponds to the excitation of a radiation mode. Lasing-like transmission occurring at resonance is carefully qualified in terms of power conservation, resonance condition, and identification of the gain medium equivalent. In particular, effective gain (geff) and threshold gain (gth) coefficients, both of which are strong functions of the forward reflection coefficient at the silver-TiO2 interface, are analytically obtained and the angular span over which geff > gth is further verified rigorously electromagnetically. The results show that the present configuration may be treated as a cascade of the gain equivalent (i.e. the silver film) and the TiO2 resonator that is of Fabry-Perot type, giving rise to negative gth when resonant tunneling occurs. The transmittance spectrum exhibiting a gain-curve-like envelope is shown to be a direct consequence of the competition of the resonator loss at the silver-TiO2 interface and the forward tunneling probability through the silver barrier, all controlled by the effective silver barrier thickness.

Concepts: Resonator, Vector space, 2006 albums, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Quantum tunnelling, Electronics terms, Mechanical resonance


With conventional semiconductor lasers undergoing external optical feedback, a chaotic output is typically observed even for moderate levels of the feedback strength. In this paper we examine single mode quantum dot lasers under strong optical feedback conditions and show that an entirely new dynamical regime is found consisting of spontaneous mode-locking via a resonance between the relaxation oscillation frequency and the external cavity repetition rate. Experimental observations are supported by detailed numerical simulations of rate equations appropriate for this laser type. The phenomenon constitutes an entirely new mode-locking mechanism in semiconductor lasers.

Concepts: Laser, Resonator, Oscillation, Wave, Control theory, Feedback, Resonance, Optical cavity


The effect of a thin layer with the finite surface conductivity located near the lateral electric field excited resonator on its characteristics is studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that for the fixed distance between the free side of the resonator and conducting layer with increasing the surface conductivity of the layer the resonant frequency of the parallel resonance remains initially practically constant, then sharply decreases in a certain range and then insignificantly changes. For the fixed value of the layer conductivity the parallel resonant frequency increases at the increase in the gap between the resonator and layer and then achieves the saturation. The maximum change in the frequency of the parallel resonance corresponds to a zero gap when the layer conductivity varies over the wide range is equal to ∼1%. The frequency of the series resonance decreases only by ∼0.08% due to the change in the layer conductivity. The obtained results may be useful for the development of the gas sensors based on the lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator conjugated to the gas sensitive film, the conductivity of which changes in the presence of the given gas.

Concepts: Resonator, Resonance, Acoustic resonance, Standing wave, Mechanical resonance


Typical integrated optical phase tuners alter the effective index. In this paper, we explore tuning by geometric deformation. We show that tuning efficiency, Vπ L, improves as the device size shrinks down to the optimal bend radius, contrary to conventional index-shift based approaches where Vπ L remains constant. We demonstrate that this approach is capable of ultra-low power tuning across a full FSR in a low-confinement silicon nitride based ring resonator of 580 μm radius. We demonstrate record performance with VFSR = 16 V, Vπ L = 3.6 V dB, Vπ Lα = 1.1 V dB, tuning current below 10 nA, and unattenuated tuning response up to 1 MHz. We also present optimized designs for high confinement silicon nitride and silicon based platforms with radius down to 80 μm and 45 μm, respectively, with performance well beyond current state-of-the-art. Applications include narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers for spectroscopy and non-linear optics, optical phased array beamforming networks for RF antennas and LIDAR, and optical filters for WDM telecommunication links.

Concepts: Optics, Laser, Resonator, Length, Nonlinear optics, LIDAR, Bend radius