To assess effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, Gliolan(®)) in patients treated for malignant glioma under typical daily practice conditions in Spain, using complete resection rate (CR) and progression free survival at 6 months (PFS6).
After 20 years of experience in laparoscopic liver surgery there is still no clear definition of the best approach (totally laparoscopic [TLS] or hand-assisted [HAS]), the indications for surgery, position, instrumentation, immediate and long-term postoperative results, etc.
Background Nivolumab and ipilimumab are immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In the United States, ipilimumab has also been approved as adjuvant therapy for melanoma on the basis of recurrence-free and overall survival rates that were higher than those with placebo in a phase 3 trial. We wanted to determine the efficacy of nivolumab versus ipilimumab for adjuvant therapy in patients with resected advanced melanoma. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 906 patients (≥15 years of age) who were undergoing complete resection of stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV melanoma to receive an intravenous infusion of either nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks (453 patients) or ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for four doses and then every 12 weeks (453 patients). The patients were treated for a period of up to 1 year or until disease recurrence, a report of unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrawal of consent. The primary end point was recurrence-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Results At a minimum follow-up of 18 months, the 12-month rate of recurrence-free survival was 70.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.1 to 74.5) in the nivolumab group and 60.8% (95% CI, 56.0 to 65.2) in the ipilimumab group (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.65; 97.56% CI, 0.51 to 0.83; P<0.001). Treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events were reported in 14.4% of the patients in the nivolumab group and in 45.9% of those in the ipilimumab group; treatment was discontinued because of any adverse event in 9.7% and 42.6% of the patients, respectively. Two deaths (0.4%) related to toxic effects were reported in the ipilimumab group more than 100 days after treatment. Conclusions Among patients undergoing resection of stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV melanoma, adjuvant therapy with nivolumab resulted in significantly longer recurrence-free survival and a lower rate of grade 3 or 4 adverse events than adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; CheckMate 238 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02388906 ; Eudra-CT number, 2014-002351-26 .).
Pulmonary aspergillomas may cause life-threatening hemoptysis. The treatment of this condition is problematic because poor pulmonary function often precludes definitive surgical resection.
Treatment outcomes after surgical resection of midline anterior skull base meningiomas at a single center.
- Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
- Published over 6 years ago
Meningiomas of the midline anterior skull base (ASB) typically grow around the optic chiasm. These tumors can displace or adhere to the optic apparatus, resulting in visual abnormalities. For this reason, in most studies of surgically resected meningiomas, only surgical and visual outcomes have been evaluated. However, in this study, we assessed overall clinical outcomes and the effects of different surgical approaches on outcomes. Clinical data for 126 patients who were treated surgically for midline ASB meningiomas between 1994 and 2009 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. The mean follow-up duration was 39months (range: 0.5-146months). Most procedures were performed via a pterional approach and did not require an aggressive skull base approach. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using our own criteria, and potential predictive factors for visual and clinical outcomes were tested statistically. The tumor control rate was 83% (105/126). Immediate postoperative visual status and optic canal involvement were correlated with visual outcome. Of the patients who ultimately had improved visual status, only six were originally categorized as having severe visual impairment (all were only able to count fingers). In terms of clinical outcome, 41 patients were classified as “excellent”, 32 as “good”, 29 as “fair”, and 20 as “poor”. A symptom duration of less than six months, less severe preoperative visual symptoms of the affected eye, and the extent of resection were all correlated with improved clinical outcome. Involvement of the optic canal, adherence of the tumor to the optic nerve, and major arterial encasement by the tumor were associated with poor clinical outcome. We recommend that in patients with unilateral severe visual impairment, the focus should be on improving visual function in the contralateral eye. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of several variables allows for the prediction of clinical and visual outcomes.
The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent microsurgical resection for recurrent vestibular schwannoma after microsurgical resection and previous radiation therapy.
A retrospective evaluation of our series to evaluate feasibility and safety of laparoscopic segmental bowel resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis.
Anastomotic dehisense is a serious complication of anterior resections. We have had success in our centre utilising Endosponge therapy to salvage anastomotic leaks but this requires multiple endoscopic sessions and can take around 6 weeks to heal in some cases. This can delay further management such as chemotherapy.
Many patients with massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage from diverticulosis are subjected to total colectomy when preoperative localisation is unavailable. We dissected colectomy specimens and noted that there was limited retrograde reflux in most of these cases. Therefore, we sought to assess the value of a positive endoluminal erythrocyte presence (PEEP) test (presence of fresh blood in the caecum) to direct segmental colectomies in 14 patients who required emergency operations for massive lower GI haemorrhage. Overall, 13 (93%) patients who had segmental colectomy guided by the PEEP test had successful control of bleeding. There was no mortality and a 14% postoperative morbidity after segmental resections guided by the PEEP test. One patient had persistent bleeding and required a completion colectomy on the third postoperative day. We propose that the PEEP test be added to the surgical armamentarium to guide segmental resection in the absence of localisation by conventional means. However, we advocate blind total colectomy if the PEEP test is equivocal and early completion colectomy if there is significant re-bleeding.
A dark pigmented intramedullary mass is very rarely encountered in daily practice, and poses a diagnostic challenge. Several entities have to be considered, including melanin-containing tumours (melanotic ependymoma and melanotic schwannoma) and melanocyte-containing tumours (melanocytoma, primary melanoma and melanoma metastases). The case is presented of a 47 year-old male with a pigmented intramedullary tumour located at T7-T8 level. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a tumour with hyperintensity on T1 and hypointensity on T2. The tumour was resected partially and treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. The diagnosis of primary intramedullary melanoma (PIM) was established based on histology and the absence of other lesions outside of the CNS. A literature review is presented on the other 26 PIM cases reported. PIM are extremely rare tumours, but are the most frequent cause of pigmented intramedullary tumour. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever possible, followed by radiotherapy.