SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Resection

164

To assess effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, Gliolan(®)) in patients treated for malignant glioma under typical daily practice conditions in Spain, using complete resection rate (CR) and progression free survival at 6 months (PFS6).

Concepts: Glioma, Neurosurgery, Resection

164

After 20 years of experience in laparoscopic liver surgery there is still no clear definition of the best approach (totally laparoscopic [TLS] or hand-assisted [HAS]), the indications for surgery, position, instrumentation, immediate and long-term postoperative results, etc.

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Resection

154

Background Nivolumab and ipilimumab are immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In the United States, ipilimumab has also been approved as adjuvant therapy for melanoma on the basis of recurrence-free and overall survival rates that were higher than those with placebo in a phase 3 trial. We wanted to determine the efficacy of nivolumab versus ipilimumab for adjuvant therapy in patients with resected advanced melanoma. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 906 patients (≥15 years of age) who were undergoing complete resection of stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV melanoma to receive an intravenous infusion of either nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks (453 patients) or ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for four doses and then every 12 weeks (453 patients). The patients were treated for a period of up to 1 year or until disease recurrence, a report of unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrawal of consent. The primary end point was recurrence-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Results At a minimum follow-up of 18 months, the 12-month rate of recurrence-free survival was 70.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.1 to 74.5) in the nivolumab group and 60.8% (95% CI, 56.0 to 65.2) in the ipilimumab group (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.65; 97.56% CI, 0.51 to 0.83; P<0.001). Treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events were reported in 14.4% of the patients in the nivolumab group and in 45.9% of those in the ipilimumab group; treatment was discontinued because of any adverse event in 9.7% and 42.6% of the patients, respectively. Two deaths (0.4%) related to toxic effects were reported in the ipilimumab group more than 100 days after treatment. Conclusions Among patients undergoing resection of stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV melanoma, adjuvant therapy with nivolumab resulted in significantly longer recurrence-free survival and a lower rate of grade 3 or 4 adverse events than adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; CheckMate 238 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02388906 ; Eudra-CT number, 2014-002351-26 .).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Clopidogrel, Adverse event, Resection, Paclitaxel, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Ipilimumab, Medarex

28

Pulmonary aspergillomas may cause life-threatening hemoptysis. The treatment of this condition is problematic because poor pulmonary function often precludes definitive surgical resection.

Concepts: Function, Amphotericin B, Resection, Hemoptysis, Aspergilloma

28

Meningiomas of the midline anterior skull base (ASB) typically grow around the optic chiasm. These tumors can displace or adhere to the optic apparatus, resulting in visual abnormalities. For this reason, in most studies of surgically resected meningiomas, only surgical and visual outcomes have been evaluated. However, in this study, we assessed overall clinical outcomes and the effects of different surgical approaches on outcomes. Clinical data for 126 patients who were treated surgically for midline ASB meningiomas between 1994 and 2009 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. The mean follow-up duration was 39months (range: 0.5-146months). Most procedures were performed via a pterional approach and did not require an aggressive skull base approach. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using our own criteria, and potential predictive factors for visual and clinical outcomes were tested statistically. The tumor control rate was 83% (105/126). Immediate postoperative visual status and optic canal involvement were correlated with visual outcome. Of the patients who ultimately had improved visual status, only six were originally categorized as having severe visual impairment (all were only able to count fingers). In terms of clinical outcome, 41 patients were classified as “excellent”, 32 as “good”, 29 as “fair”, and 20 as “poor”. A symptom duration of less than six months, less severe preoperative visual symptoms of the affected eye, and the extent of resection were all correlated with improved clinical outcome. Involvement of the optic canal, adherence of the tumor to the optic nerve, and major arterial encasement by the tumor were associated with poor clinical outcome. We recommend that in patients with unilateral severe visual impairment, the focus should be on improving visual function in the contralateral eye. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of several variables allows for the prediction of clinical and visual outcomes.

Concepts: Nervous system, Visual system, Ophthalmology, Resection, Visual impairment, Optic nerve, Optic chiasm

25

A retrospective evaluation of our series to evaluate feasibility and safety of laparoscopic segmental bowel resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis.

Concepts: Cohort study, Cohort, Evaluation methods, Retrospective, Resection

23

Anastomotic dehisense is a serious complication of anterior resections. We have had success in our centre utilising Endosponge therapy to salvage anastomotic leaks but this requires multiple endoscopic sessions and can take around 6 weeks to heal in some cases. This can delay further management such as chemotherapy.

Concepts: Resection, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Leak

20

Snapping scapula syndrome (SSS) is caused by bony and/or soft tissue impingement in the scapulothoracic articulation. Surgical resection of the superomedial angle (SMA) plus bursectomy can provide relief in most cases; however, the amount needed to achieve adequate scapulothoracic space decompression (SSD) is unknown.

Concepts: Tissues, Soft tissue, Resection

8

To investigate the success rate of cold snare polypectomy (CSP) for complete resection of 4-9 mm colorectal adenomatous polyps compared with that of hot snare polypectomy (HSP).

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Colorectal cancer, Colon, Colonoscopy, Resection

8

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common brain tumor in children. This tumor is usually benign and has a good prognosis. Total resection is the treatment of choice and will cure the majority of patients. However, often only partial resection is possible due to the location of the tumor. In that case, spontaneous regression, regrowth, or progression to a more aggressive form have been observed. The dependency between the residual tumor size and spontaneous regression is not understood yet. Therefore, the prognosis is largely unpredictable and there is controversy regarding the management of patients for whom complete resection cannot be achieved. Strategies span from pure observation (wait and see) to combinations of surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Here, we introduce a mathematical model to investigate the growth and progression behavior of PA. In particular, we propose a Markov chain model incorporating cell proliferation and death as well as mutations. Our model analysis shows that the tumor behavior after partial resection is essentially determined by a risk coefficient γ, which can be deduced from epidemiological data about PA. Our results quantitatively predict the regression probability of a partially resected benign PA given the residual tumor size and lead to the hypothesis that this dependency is linear, implying that removing any amount of tumor mass will improve prognosis. This finding stands in contrast to diffuse malignant glioma where an extent of resection threshold has been experimentally shown, below which no benefit for survival is expected. These results have important implications for future therapeutic studies in PA that should include residual tumor volume as a prognostic factor.

Concepts: Scientific method, Cancer, Oncology, Glioma, Brain tumor, Astrocytoma, Hypothesis, Resection