Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Reproductive technology


Genome editing allows for the versatile genetic modification of somatic cells, germ cells and embryos. In particular, CRISPR/Cas9 is worldwide used in biomedical research. Although the first report on Cas9-mediated gene modification in human embryos focused on the prevention of a genetic disease in offspring, it raised profound ethical and social concerns over the safety of subsequent generations and the potential misuse of genome editing for human enhancement. The present article considers germ line genome editing approaches from various clinical and ethical viewpoints and explores its objectives. The risks and benefits of the following three likely objectives are assessed: the prevention of monogenic diseases, personalized assisted reproductive technology (ART) and genetic enhancement. Although genetic enhancement should be avoided, the international regulatory landscape suggests the inevitability of this misuse at ART centers. Under these circumstances, possible regulatory responses and the potential roles of public dialogue are discussed.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Disease, Organism, Bioethics, Reproductive technology, Human enhancement


The extent to which birth defects after infertility treatment may be explained by underlying parental factors is uncertain.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Risk, Infertility, Assisted reproductive technology, Uncertainty, Fertility medicine, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Reproductive technology


Children conceived via assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are nowadays a substantial proportion of the population. It is important to follow up these children and evaluate whether they have elevated health risks compared to naturally conceived (NC) children. In recent years there has been a lot of work in this field. This review will summarize what is known about the health of ART-conceived children, encompassing neonatal outcomes, birth defects, growth and gonadal developments, physical health, neurological and neurodevelopmental outcomes, psychosocial developments, risk for cancer, and epigenetic abnormalities. Most of the children conceived after ART are normal. However, there is increasing evidence that ART-conceived children are at higher risk of poor perinatal outcome, birth defects, and epigenetic disorders, and the mechanism(s) leading to these changes have not been elucidated. Continuous follow-up of children after ART is of great importance as they progress through adolescence into adulthood, and new ART techniques are constantly being introduced.

Concepts: Medicine, Pregnancy, Human, Reproduction, Assisted reproductive technology, Reproductive technology


Animal experiments suggest that ingestion of pesticide mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations decreases the number of live-born offspring. Whether the same is true in humans is unknown.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Reproduction, Infertility, Assisted reproductive technology, Fertility medicine, Reproductive technology


Infertility affects approximately 6.7 million women in the United States. Couples with infertility have significantly more anxiety, depression, and stress. This is compounded by the fact that almost 40% of couples undergoing assisted reproduction technology still cannot conceive, which can have an ongoing effect on quality of life, marital adjustment, and sexual impact.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Reproduction, Life, United States, Infertility, Fertility, Assisted reproductive technology, Reproductive technology


To consider how staffing requirements have changed with evolving and increasingly more complex assisted reproduction technology (ART) laboratory practice.

Concepts: Reproduction, Assisted reproductive technology, Reproductive technology


Assisted reproductive technology is one of the therapeutic options offered for managing endometriosis-associated infertility. Yet, published data on assisted reproductive technology outcome in women affected by endometriosis are conflicting and the determinant factors for pregnancy chances unclear.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Reproduction, Infertility, Fertility, Assisted reproductive technology, Endometriosis, Fertility medicine, Reproductive technology


To determine the magnitude of improvement in semen parameters after a varicocelectomy and the fraction that have improvements such that couples needing IVF or IUI are “upgraded” to needing less invasive assisted reproductive technology (ART).

Concepts: Reproduction, Improve, Assisted reproductive technology, Upgrade, Fertility medicine, Sperm donation, Reproductive technology


An increasing percentage of births are conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other infertility treatment. Despite findings that such treatments may be associated with diminished gestation and birth size, scarce data exist regarding infertility treatments and children’s development in the United States.

Concepts: Childbirth, Human, Reproduction, United States, Childhood, Assisted reproductive technology, Child development, Reproductive technology


To study the relationship between men’s meat intake and clinical outcomes in couples undergoing infertility treatment with the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART).

Concepts: Reproduction, Infertility, Assisted reproductive technology, Fertility medicine, Conception device, Reproductive technology, Gamete intrafallopian transfer