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Concept: Replacement


Food loss is widely recognized as undermining food security and environmental sustainability. However, consumption of resource-intensive food items instead of more efficient, equally nutritious alternatives can also be considered as an effective food loss. Here we define and quantify these opportunity food losses as the food loss associated with consuming resource-intensive animal-based items instead of plant-based alternatives which are nutritionally comparable, e.g., in terms of protein content. We consider replacements that minimize cropland use for each of the main US animal-based food categories. We find that although the characteristic conventional retail-to-consumer food losses are ≈30% for plant and animal products, the opportunity food losses of beef, pork, dairy, poultry, and eggs are 96%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. This arises because plant-based replacement diets can produce 20-fold and twofold more nutritionally similar food per cropland than beef and eggs, the most and least resource-intensive animal categories, respectively. Although conventional and opportunity food losses are both targets for improvement, the high opportunity food losses highlight the large potential savings beyond conventionally defined food losses. Concurrently replacing all animal-based items in the US diet with plant-based alternatives will add enough food to feed, in full, 350 million additional people, well above the expected benefits of eliminating all supply chain food waste. These results highlight the importance of dietary shifts to improving food availability and security.

Concepts: Kashrut, Food security, Replacement, Sustainability, Replacements, Meat, Food, Nutrition


To evaluate the impact of (1) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (2) their replacement with active input electronic games, on daily physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children aged 10-12 years.

Concepts: Replacements, Randomized controlled trial, Replacement


Social insect colonies are highly successful, self-organized complex systems. Surprisingly however, most social insect colonies contain large numbers of highly inactive workers. Although this may seem inefficient, it may be that inactive workers actually contribute to colony function. Indeed, the most commonly proposed explanation for inactive workers is that they form a ‘reserve’ labor force that becomes active when needed, thus helping mitigate the effects of colony workload fluctuations or worker loss. Thus, it may be that inactive workers facilitate colony flexibility and resilience. However, this idea has not been empirically confirmed. Here we test whether colonies of Temnothorax rugatulus ants replace highly active (spending large proportions of time on specific tasks) or highly inactive (spending large proportions of time completely immobile) workers when they are experimentally removed. We show that colonies maintained pre-removal activity levels even after active workers were removed, and that previously inactive workers became active subsequent to the removal of active workers. Conversely, when inactive workers were removed, inactivity levels decreased and remained lower post-removal. Thus, colonies seem to have mechanisms for maintaining a certain number of active workers, but not a set number of inactive workers. The rapid replacement (within 1 week) of active workers suggests that the tasks they perform, mainly foraging and brood care, are necessary for colony function on short timescales. Conversely, the lack of replacement of inactive workers even 2 weeks after their removal suggests that any potential functions they have, including being a ‘reserve’, are less important, or auxiliary, and do not need immediate recovery. Thus, inactive workers act as a reserve labor force and may still play a role as food stores for the colony, but a role in facilitating colony-wide communication is unlikely. Our results are consistent with the often cited, but never yet empirically supported hypothesis that inactive workers act as a pool of ‘reserve’ labor that may allow colonies to quickly take advantage of novel resources and to mitigate worker loss.

Concepts: Colony, Scientific method, Economics, Ant, Vitruvius, Activity, Replacements, Replacement


Sedentary behaviour, sleeping, and physical activity are thought to be independently associated with health outcomes but it is unclear whether these associations are due to the direct physiological effects of each behaviour or because, across a finite 24-hour day, engagement in one behavior requires displacement of another. The aim of this study was to examine the replacement effects of sedentary behaviour (total sitting, television/computer screen time combined), sleeping, standing, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on all-cause mortality using isotemporal substitution modelling.

Concepts: Human behavior, Unified Modeling Language, Replacements, Replacement, Model, Behavior, Evolutionary physiology, Psychology


Bioisosteric replacements are widely used in medicinal chemistry to improve physicochemical and ADME properties of molecules while retaining or improving affinity. Here, using the p53 cancer mutant Y220C as a test case, we investigate both computationally and experimentally whether an ethynyl moiety is a suitable bioisostere to replace iodine in ligands that form halogen bonds with the protein backbone. This bioisosteric transformation is synthetically feasible via Sonogashira cross-coupling. In our test case of a particularly strong halogen bond, replacement of the iodine with an ethynyl group resulted in a 13-fold affinity loss. High-resolution crystal structures of the two analogues in complex with the p53-Y220C mutant enabled us to correlate the different affinities with particular features of the binding site and subtle changes in ligand binding mode. In addition, using QM calculations and analyzing the PDB, we provide general guidelines to identify cases where such a transformation is likely to improve ligand recognition.

Concepts: Protein, Replacements, Iodine, Replacement, Ligand, Experiment, Chemical bonding, Chemistry


The major objective of this study was to assess the antifungal activities of commercially available ‘clean label’ fermentates and their potential to replace the preservative function of sorbate and propionate in cake. This study was performed in two parts. In the first part of the study the inhibitory activities of selected fermentates - FA, FB, FC and FD - towards Aspergillus tritici and Aspergillus amstelodami were assessed as a function of pH (5.0-6.5) on malt extract agar (MEA). In the second part of the study, challenge, shelf-life and sensorial tests were used to determine the suitability of these fermentates to replace potassium sorbate and calcium propionate in quarter pound cake. All the fermentates evaluated in this study all had significant (p<0.05) inhibitory activities towards A. tritici and A. amstelodami within the recommended dosage range for application in bakery products. In all cases, the inhibitory activity of the fermentates increased with a decrease in the pH and an increase in concentration. FC was generally the most inhibitory whilst FD was the least inhibitory. Significant (p<0.05) synergistic interactions were determined to occur between the effects of pH and concentration for all fermentates evaluated in this study. The sensorial tests with FC showed that cakes produced with ≤1% FC (on basis of the batter) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) in flavour from the reference cake (0.5% calcium propionate and 0.54% potassium sorbate). However, the challenge and shelf-life tests showed that cakes produced with ≤1% FC were not as microbiologically shelf-stable as the reference cake, especially when sliced. Therefore, it can be concluded that whilst fermentates have appreciable antifungal effects, their use could potentially result in reduced shelf-stabilities. Robust challenge and shelf-life tests would be recommended before the marketing of cakes were propionate and/or sorbate has been replaced to ensure accurate shelf-lives are stated.

Concepts: Pound cake, Potassium sorbate, Baking, Potential, Seawater, Replacement, Cake, Cakes


Management of preoperative antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is variable among surgeons: guidelines collide with prejudices because replacement of aspirin with low-molecular-weight heparin is still performed because of a presumed minor bleeding risk. This study aims to analyze postoperative bleedings and complications in patients scheduled for elective primary isolated on-pump CABG, depending on preoperative aspirin treatment or its replacement with enoxaparin. In this cohort study, we propensity score matched 200 patients in whom aspirin was stopped at least 5 days before CABG and replaced with enoxaparin and 200 patients who continued aspirin therapy until the day before surgery. Postoperative bleedings and complications were monitored during hospitalization. Among patients who continued aspirin treatment, mean overall bleeding was 701.0 ± 334.6 ml, whereas in the matched enoxaparin group, it was significantly greater (882.6 ± 64.6 ml, p value <0.001); this was associated with reduced postoperative complications, lower values of postoperative C-reactive protein in aspirin takers, and a presumed protective effect for statins. After propensity score adjustment, aspirin treatment carried a protective effect against major postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 0.312, p = 0.001). In conclusion, postoperative bleeding is reduced in patients who continued aspirin, likely due to a reduction in postoperative inflammation. The practice of empirically discontinuing aspirin and replacing it with enoxaparin before CABG should be abandoned. Patients with coronary artery disease referred to CABG should continue antiplatelet medications until the surgical procedure. Those results might be extended to patients under oral anticoagulant therapy requiring CABG.

Concepts: Replacement, Anticoagulant, Surgery, Angina pectoris, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Myocardial infarction, Coronary artery disease, Atherosclerosis


Orogastric gavage, while a common method for delivering experimental substances in mice, has been shown to induce stress. To minimize the associated stress with this procedure, sham gavage prior to the start of experiment is a common method for habiutating mice. We investigated whether handling and restraint could replace sham treatment in the acclimatization protocol. Mice were either undisturbed, hand-restrained for 10 s or sham-gavaged daily for six days prior to eight days of twice daily gavage. The results showed that repetitive restraint and gavage had no differences in body weight after eight days of treatment compared with the body weights at the start of treatment, whereas animals left undisturbed lost significant weight once treatment began. These data suggest that procedure refinement by replacing sham treatment with hand restraint is sufficient to acclimatize mice to the stress associated with gavage.

Concepts: Method, Weight, Experiment, Acclimatization, Replacement, TheStart, Object-oriented programming, English-language films


The multibillion-dollar global antibody industry produces an indispensable resource but that is generated using millions of animals. Despite the irrefutable maturation and availability of animal-friendly affinity reagents (AFAs) employing naïve B lymphocyte or synthetic recombinant technologies expressed by phage display, animal immunisation is still authorised for antibody production. Remarkably, replacement opportunities have been overlooked, despite the enormous potential reduction in animal use. Directive 2010/63/EU requires that animals are not used where alternatives exist. To ensure its implementation, we have engaged in discussions with the EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM) and the Directorate General for Environment to carve out an EU-led replacement strategy. Measures must be imposed to avoid outsourcing, regulate commercial production, and ensure that antibody producers are fully supported.

Concepts: Directorate-General, Replacement, Animal, Humoral immunity, Abbott Laboratories, Lymphocyte, European Union, Immune system


While excessive sitting time is related adversely to cardio-metabolic health, it is unknown whether standing is a suitable replacement activity or whether ambulatory movement is required. Using isotemporal substitution analyses, we modelled cross-sectional associations with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers of reallocating time (2 h/day) from sitting to standing or to stepping.

Concepts: Replacements, Replacement