SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Renewable resource

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Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

Concepts: Capacity factor, Energy, East Africa, Renewable resource, Madagascar, Renewable energy, Africa, Wind power

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An integrated approach is required to optimise fish farming systems by maximising output while minimising their negative environmental impacts. We developed a holistic approach to assess the environmental performances by combining two methods based on energetic and physical flow analysis. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a normalised method that estimates resource use and potential impacts throughout a product’s life cycle. Emergy Accounting (EA) refers the amount of energy directly or indirectly required by a product or a service. The combination of these two methods was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting fish-farming systems: a farm producing salmon in a recirculating system (RSF), a semi-extensive polyculture pond (PF1) and an extensive polyculture pond (PF2). The RSF system, with a low feed-conversion ratio (FCR = 0.95), had lower environmental impacts per tonne of live fish produced than did the two pond farms, when the effects on climate change, acidification, total cumulative energy demand, land competition and water dependence were considered. However, RSF was clearly disconnected from the surrounding environment and depended highly on external resources (e.g. nutrients, energy). Ponds adequately incorporated renewable natural resources but had higher environmental impacts due to incomplete use of external inputs. This study highlighted key factors necessary for the successful ecological intensification of fish farming, i.e., minimise external inputs, lower the FCR, and increase the use of renewable resources from the surrounding environment. The combination of LCA and EA seems to be a practical approach to address the complexity of optimising biophysical efficiency in aquaculture systems.

Concepts: Natural environment, Life cycle assessment, Renewable resource, Aquaponics, Energy, Salmon, Aquaculture, Natural resource

24

The heavy dependence on petroleum-derived fuel has raised concerns about energy sustainability and climate change, which have prompted researchers to explore fuel production from renewable sources. 1-Butanol and isobutanol are promising biofuels that have favorable properties and can also serve as solvents or chemical feedstocks. Microbial production of these alcohols provides great opportunities to access a wide spectrum of renewable resources. In recent years, research has improved the native 1-butanol production and has engineered isobutanol production in various organisms to explore metabolic diversity and a broad range of substrates. This review focuses on progress in metabolic engineering for the production of these two compounds using various resources.

Concepts: Enzyme, Renewable resource, Habitat conservation, Metabolism, Natural capital, Alternative energy, Renewable energy, Natural resource

12

Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

Concepts: Temperature, Electrolyte, Renewable resource, Battery, Chemistry, Renewable energy, Water, Wind power

6

Abrupt shifts in natural resources and their markets are a ubiquitous challenge to human communities. Building resilient social-ecological systems requires approaches that are robust to uncertainty and to regime shifts. Harvesting diverse portfolios of natural resources and adapting portfolios in response to change could stabilize economies reliant on natural resources and their markets, both of which are prone to unpredictable shifts. Here we use fisheries catch and revenue data from Alaskan fishing communities over 34 years to test whether diversification and turnover in the composition of fishing opportunities increased economic stability during major ocean and market regime shifts in 1989. More than 85% of communities show reduced fishing revenues following these regime shifts. However, communities with the highest portfolio diversity and those that could opportunistically shift the composition of resources they harvest, experienced negligible or even positive changes in revenue. Maintaining diversity in economic opportunities and enabling turnover facilitates sustainability of communities reliant on renewable resources facing uncertain futures.

Concepts: Economics, Portfolio, Sustainability, Natural environment, Resource, Renewable resource, Habitat conservation, Natural resource

5

There are numerous approaches for producing natural and synthetic 3D scaffolds that support the proliferation of mammalian cells. 3D scaffolds better represent the natural cellular microenvironment and have many potential applications in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that 3D cellulose scaffolds produced by decellularizing apple hypanthium tissue can be employed for in vitro 3D culture of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, mouse C2C12 muscle myoblasts and human HeLa epithelial cells. We show that these cells can adhere, invade and proliferate in the cellulose scaffolds. In addition, biochemical functionalization or chemical cross-linking can be employed to control the surface biochemistry and/or mechanical properties of the scaffold. The cells retain high viability even after 12 continuous weeks of culture and can achieve cell densities comparable with other natural and synthetic scaffold materials. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds are easily produced, inexpensive and originate from a renewable source. Taken together, these results demonstrate that naturally derived cellulose scaffolds offer a complementary approach to existing techniques for the in vitro culture of mammalian cells in a 3D environment.

Concepts: DNA, Stomach, Renewable resource, Human, In vivo, In vitro, Skin, Cell culture

3

Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive renewable resource for future liquid transport fuel. Efficient and cost-effective production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass depends on the development of a suitable pretreatment system. The aim of this study is to investigate a new pretreatment method that is highly efficient and effective for downstream biocatalytic hydrolysis of various lignocellulosic biomass materials, which can accelerate bioethanol commercialization.

Concepts: Ethanol fuel, Natural gas, Renewable resource, Biofuel, Classical mechanics, Natural resource, Petroleum

2

With the depletion of the nonrenewable petrochemical resources and the increasing concerns of environmental pollution globally, biofuels and biobased chemicals produced from the renewable resources appear to be of great strategic significance. The present review described the progress in the biosynthesis of fatty acid and its derivatives from renewable biomass and emphasized the importance of fatty acid serving as the platform chemical and feedstock for a variety of chemicals. Due to the low efficient conversions of lignocellulosic biomass or carbon dioxide to fatty acid, we also put forward that rational strategies for the production of fatty acid and its derivatives should further derive from the consideration of whole bioprocess (pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation, separation), multiscale analysis and interdisciplinary combinations (omics, kinetics, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, fermentation and so on).

Concepts: Renewable resource, Nitrogen, Fatty acid, Alcohol, Natural resource, Metabolism, Ethanol, Carbon dioxide

1

Understanding how humans and other animals behave in response to changes in their environments is vital for predicting population dynamics and the trajectory of coupled social-ecological systems. Here, we present a novel framework for identifying emergent social behaviours in foragers (including humans engaged in fishing or hunting) in predator-prey contexts based on the exploration difficulty and exploitation potential of a renewable natural resource. A qualitative framework is introduced that predicts when foragers should behave territorially, search collectively, act independently or switch among these states. To validate it, we derived quantitative predictions from two models of different structure: a generic mathematical model, and a lattice-based evolutionary model emphasising exploitation and exclusion costs. These models independently identified that the exploration difficulty and exploitation potential of the natural resource controls the social behaviour of resource exploiters. Our theoretical predictions were finally compared to a diverse set of empirical cases focusing on fisheries and aquatic organisms across a range of taxa, substantiating the framework’s predictions. Understanding social behaviour for given social-ecological characteristics has important implications, particularly for the design of governance structures and regulations to move exploited systems, such as fisheries, towards sustainability. Our framework provides concrete steps in this direction.

Concepts: Behavior, Renewable resource, Ecology, Natural environment, Natural resource, Human behavior, Psychology, Scientific method

1

C2-C4 diols classically derived from fossil resource are very important bulk chemicals which have been used in a wide range of areas, including solvents, fuels, polymers, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Production of C2-C4 diols from renewable resources has received significant interest in consideration of the reducing fossil resource and the increasing environmental issues. While bioproduction of certain diols like 1,3-propanediol has been commercialized in recent years, biosynthesis of many other important C2-C4 diol isomers is highly challenging due to the lack of natural synthesis pathways. Recent advances in synthetic biology have enabled the de novo design of completely new pathways to non-natural molecules from renewable feedstocks. In this study, we review recent advances in bioproduction of C2-C4 diols, focusing on new metabolic pathways and metabolic engineering strategies being developed. We also discuss the challenges and future trends toward the development of economically competitive processes for bio-based diol production.

Concepts: Diol, Amino acid, Habitat conservation, Renewable resource, Metabolism, Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate, Natural resource