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Concept: Renaissance music


The current study examined the adaptive response to both endurance (END) and sprint interval training (SIT) in a group of twenty-one recreationally active adults. All participants completed three weeks (four days/ week) of both END (30 minutes at ~65% VO2peak work rate (WR) and SIT (eight, 20-second intervals at ~170% VO2peak WR separated by 10 seconds of active rest) following a randomized crossover study design with a three-month washout period between training interventions. While a main effect of training was observed for VO2peak, lactate threshold, and submaximal heart rate (HR), considerable variability was observed in the individual responses to both END and SIT. No significant positive relationships were observed between END and SIT for individual changes in any variable. Non-responses were determined using two times the typical error (TE) of measurement for VO2peak (0.107 L/min), lactate threshold (15.7 W), and submaximal HR (10.7bpm). Non-responders in VO2peak, lactate threshold, and submaximal HR were observed following both END and SIT, however, the individual patterns of response differed following END and SIT. Interestingly, all individuals responded in at least one variable when exposed to both END and SIT. These results suggest that the individual response to exercise training is highly variable following different training protocols and that the incidence of non-response to exercise training may be reduced by changing the training stimulus for non-responders to three weeks of END or SIT.

Concepts: Crossover study, Exercise, Adaptive immune system, Variable, Running, Interval training, Renaissance music, Adaptive response


Animalsreadily learn the timing between salient events. They can even adapt their timed respondingto rapidly changing intervals, sometimesas quickly as a single trial. Recently, drift-diffusion models-widely used to model response times in decision making-have been extended with newlearning rules that allow themto accommodate steady-state interval timing, including scalar timing and timescale invariance. These time-adaptive drift-diffusion models (TDDMs) work by accumulating evidence of elapsing time through their driftrate, thereby encoding the to-be-timed interval. One outstanding challenge for these models lies in the dynamics of interval timing-when the to-be-timed intervals are non-stationary. On these schedules, animals often fail to exhibit strict timescale invariance, as expected by the TDDMs and most other timing models. Here, we introduce a simple extension to these TDDMs, where the response threshold is a linear function of the observed event rate. This new model compares favourably against the basic TDDMs and the multiple-time-scale (MTS) habituation model when evaluated against three published datasets on timing dynamics in pigeons. Our results suggest that the threshold for triggering responding in interval timing changes as a function of recent intervals.

Concepts: Time, Function, Model, Linear function, Enharmonic, Renaissance music, Music theory


Manipulating rest-recovery interval between sets of resistance exercise may influence training-induced muscle remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the acute muscle anabolic response to resistance exercise performed with short or long inter-set rest intervals.

Concepts: Metabolism, Cell biology, Muscle, Actin, Peptide synthesis, Acute accent, Renaissance music


Cortical excitability, as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electromyography, is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up of epilepsy. We report on long-interval intracortical inhibition data measured in four different centres in healthy controls (n = 95), subjects with refractory genetic generalized epilepsy (n = 40) and with refractory focal epilepsy (n = 69). Long-interval intracortical inhibition was measured by applying two supra-threshold stimuli with an interstimulus interval of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ms and calculating the ratio between the response to the second (test stimulus) and to the first (conditioning stimulus). In all subjects, the median response ratio showed inhibition at all interstimulus intervals. Using a mixed linear-effects model, we compared the long-interval intracortical inhibition response ratios between the different subject types. We conducted two analyses; one including data from the four centres and one excluding data from Centre 2, as the methods in this centre differed from the others. In the first analysis, we found no differences in long-interval intracortical inhibition between the different subject types. In all subjects, the response ratios at interstimulus intervals 100 and 150 ms showed significantly more inhibition than the response ratios at 50, 200 and 250 ms. Our second analysis showed a significant interaction between interstimulus interval and subject type (P = 0.0003). Post hoc testing showed significant differences between controls and refractory focal epilepsy at interstimulus intervals of 100 ms (P = 0.02) and 200 ms (P = 0.04). There were no significant differences between controls and refractory generalized epilepsy groups or between the refractory generalized and focal epilepsy groups. Our results do not support the body of previous work that suggests that long-interval intracortical inhibition is significantly reduced in refractory focal and genetic generalized epilepsy. Results from the second analysis are even in sharper contrast with previous work, showing inhibition in refractory focal epilepsy at 200 ms instead of facilitation previously reported. Methodological differences, especially shorter intervals between the pulse pairs, may have contributed to our inability to reproduce previous findings. Based on our results, we suggest that long-interval intracortical inhibition as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography is unlikely to have clinical use as a biomarker of epilepsy.

Concepts: Ratio, Perception, Harshad number, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Neurophysiology, Neurotechnology, Euclid's Elements, Renaissance music


Western music is based on intervals; thus, interval discrimination is important for distinguishing the character of melodies or tracking melodies in polyphonic music. In this study the encoding of intervals in simultaneously presented sound is studied.

Concepts: Music, Melody, Consonance and dissonance, Harmony, Octave, Renaissance music, Medieval music, Unison


The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the main vision-stabilising system during rapid head movements in humans. A visual-vestibular mismatch stimulus can be used to train or adapt the VOR response because it induces a retinal image slip error signal that drives VOR motor learning. The training context has been shown to affect VOR adaptation. We sought to determine whether active (self-generated) versus passive (externally imposed) head rotation vestibular training would differentially affect adaptation and short-term retention of the active and passive VOR responses. Ten subjects were tested, each over six separate 1.5-h sessions. We compared active versus passive head impulse (transient, rapid head rotations with peak velocity ~ 150 °/s) VOR adaptation training lasting 15 min with the VOR gain challenged to increment, starting at unity, by 0.1 every 90 s towards one side only (this adapting side was randomised to be either left or right). The VOR response was tested/measured in darkness at 10-min intervals, 20-min intervals, and two single 60-min interval sessions for 1 h post-training. The training was active or passive for the 10- and 20-min interval sessions, but only active for the two single 60-min interval sessions. The mean VOR response increase due to training was ~ 10 % towards the adapting side versus ~2 % towards the non-adapting side. There was no difference in VOR adaptation and retention between active and passive VOR training. The only factor to affect retention was exposure to a de-adaptation stimulus. These data suggest that active VOR adaptation training can be used to optimally adapt the passive VOR and that adaptation is completely retained over 1 h as long as there is no visual feedback signal driving de-adaptation.

Concepts: Vestibular system, Vestibulo-ocular reflex, Cerebellum, Feedback, Motor learning, Adaptation, Reflex, Renaissance music


The primary objective was to determine whether technical and nontechnical performances were in some way correlated during immersive simulation. Performance was measured among French Emergency Medical Service workers at an individual and a team level. Secondary objectives were to assess stress response through collection of physiologic markers (salivary cortisol, heart rate, the proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals > 50 ms by the total number of normal-to-normal intervals [pNN50], low- and high-frequency ratio) and affective data (self-reported stress, confidence, and dissatisfaction), and to correlate them to performance scores.

Concepts: Anxiety, Medicine, Pulse, Simulation, Performance, Stress, Emergency medical services, Renaissance music


Alarming somatic symptoms, in particular, cardiovascular symptoms, are the characteristic feature of panic attacks. Increased cardiac mortality and morbidity have been found in these patients. Power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram R-R intervals is known to be a particularly successful tool in the detection of autonomic instabilities in various clinical disorders. Our study aimed to compare patients with panic disorder and healthy controls in heart rate variation (HRV) parameters (very-low-frequency [VLF], low-frequency [LF], and high-frequency [HF] band components of R-R interval) in baseline and during the response to the mental task.

Concepts: Blood, Cardiology, Heart, Organ, Circulatory system, Mental disorder, Panic attack, Renaissance music


Despite the ubiquity of go/no-go tasks in the study of behavioral inhibition, there is a lack of evidence regarding the impact of key design characteristics, including the go/no-go ratio, intertrial interval, and number of types of go stimuli, on the production of different response classes of central interest. In the present study we sought to empirically determine the optimal conditions to maximize the production of a rare outcome of considerable interest to researchers: false alarms. As predicted, the shortest intertrial intervals (450 ms), intermediate go/no-go ratios (2:1 to 4:1), and the use of multiple types of go stimuli produced the greatest numbers of false alarms. These results are placed within the context of behavioral changes during learning.

Concepts: Present, Scientific method, Future, Ratio, Number, False alarm, Renaissance music, Major and minor


A period of 4 weeks (w) has been recommended as the interval between tocilizumab (TCZ) infusions for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, treating the patients with TCZ (8 mg/kg), we experienced that longer intervals were also effective. We conducted the study to investigate whether the intervals of TCZ infusions could extend from 4w to 5 or 6w.

Concepts: Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Arthritis, Pitch, Infusion, Infusion pump, Equal temperament, Renaissance music