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Concept: Relative


Healthy individuals display a tendency to allocate attention unequally across space, and this bias has implications for how individuals interact with their environments. However, the origins of this phenomenon remain relatively poorly understood. The present research examined the joint and independent contributions of two fundamental motivational systems - behavioural approach and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) - to lateral spatial bias in a locomotion task. Participants completed self-report measures of trait BAS and BIS, then repeatedly traversed a room, blindfolded, aiming for a straight line. We obtained locomotion data from motion tracking to capture variations in the walking trajectories. Overall, walking trajectories deviated to the left, and this tendency was more pronounced with increasing BIS scores. Meanwhile, BAS was associated with relative rightward tendencies when BIS was low, but not when BIS was high. These results demonstrate for the first time an association between BIS and lateral spatial bias independently of variations in BAS. The findings also contribute to clarify the circumstances in which BAS is associated with a rightward bias. We discuss the implications of these findings for the neurobiological underpinnings of BIS and for the literature on spatial bias.

Concepts: Present, Time, Psychology, Space, Relative, Walking, Relative clause, Tendency


Relative age effects (RAEs) occur when those who are relatively older for their age group are more likely to succeed. RAEs occur reliably in some educational and athletic contexts, yet the causal mechanisms remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct test of one mechanism, selection bias, which can be defined as evaluators granting fewer opportunities to relatively younger individuals than is warranted by their latent ability. Because RAEs are well-established in hockey, we analyzed National Hockey League (NHL) drafts from 1980 to 2006. Compared to those born in the first quarter (i.e., January-March), those born in the third and fourth quarters were drafted more than 40 slots later than their productivity warranted, and they were roughly twice as likely to reach career benchmarks, such as 400 games played or 200 points scored. This selection bias in drafting did not decrease over time, apparently continues to occur, and reduces the playing opportunities of relatively younger players. This bias is remarkable because it is exhibited by professional decision makers evaluating adults in a context where RAEs have been widely publicized. Thus, selection bias based on relative age may be pervasive.

Concepts: Relative, Conscription in the United States, Ice hockey, National Hockey League, Quarters, Draft, Drafting, Drafted


Hospitals play an important role in caring for patients in the current opioid crisis, but data on the outcomes and composition of opioid-driven hospitalizations in the United States have been lacking. Nationally representative all-payer data for the period 1993-2014 from the National Inpatient Sample were used to compare the mortality rates and composition of hospitalizations with opioid-related primary diagnoses and those of hospitalizations for other drugs and for all other causes. Mortality among opioid-driven hospitalizations increased from 0.43 percent before 2000 to 2.02 percent in 2014, an average increase of 0.12 percentage points per year relative to the mortality of hospitalizations due to other drugs-which was unchanged. While the total volume of opioid-driven hospitalizations remained relatively stable, it shifted from diagnoses mostly involving opioid dependence or abuse to those centered on opioid or heroin poisoning (the latter have higher case fatality rates). After 2000, hospitalizations for opioid/heroin poisoning grew by 0.01 per 1,000 people per year, while hospitalizations for opioid dependence or abuse declined by 0.01 per 1,000 people per year. Patients admitted for opioid/heroin poisoning were more likely to be white, ages 50-64, Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities, and residents of lower-income areas. As the United States combats the opioid epidemic, efforts to help hospitals respond to the increasing severity of opioid intoxication are needed, especially in vulnerable populations.

Concepts: Hospital, Population, United States, Relative, Morphine, Drug addiction, Heroin, Disability


The original aim was to examine the effect of perceived distance, induced by the Ponzo illusion, on left/right asymmetries for line bisection. In Experiment 1, university students (n = 29) made left/right bisection judgements for lines presented in the lower or upper half of the screen against backgrounds of the Ponzo stimuli, or a baseline. While the Ponzo illusion had relatively little effect on line bisection, elevation in the baseline condition had a strong effect, whereby the leftward bias was increased for upper lines. Experiment 2 (n = 17) eliminated the effect of elevation by presenting the line in the middle and moving the Ponzo stimuli relative to the line. Despite this change, the leftward bias was still stronger in the upper condition in the baseline condition. The final experiment (n = 17) investigated whether upper/lower visual stimulation, which was irrelevant to the task, affected asymmetries for line bisection. The results revealed that a rectangle presented in the upper half of the screen increased the leftward line bisection bias relative to a baseline and lower stimulation condition. These results corroborate neuroimaging research, showing increased right parietal activation associated with shifts of attention into the upper hemispace. This increased right parietal activation may increase the leftward attentional bias-resulting in a stronger leftward bias for line bisection.

Concepts: Attention, Perception, Sense, Relative, The Final, Relative clause, Optical illusion, Ponzo illusion


Isosteviol (1) has been reported to exhibit moderate vasorelaxant activity. In order to enhance the bioactivity of this compound, chemical modification of 1 to the dihydro analog, ent-16β-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid (2), was undertaken. Compound 2 was then converted to the corresponding acetate derivative, ent-16β-acetoxybeyeran-19-oic acid (3). Biotransformation of compounds 1-3 by the fungus Cunninghamella echinulata NRRL 1386 was investigated and the metabolites 4-9 were obtained. The substrates and their metabolites were subjected to in vitro rat aorta relaxant activity evaluation. The metabolite 4, ent-7α-hydroxy-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid, exhibited the most highly potent activity, with EC50 of 3.46 nM, whereas the parent compound 1 showed relatively low activity (EC50 57.41 nM). A 17-fold increase in vasorelaxant activity of the analog 4 relative to compound 1 is of particular significant. Compound 4 exerted vasorelaxant activity at particularly low concentration and the vasorelaxant profile reached maximum at relatively low concentration, especially when compared with acetylcholine, the positive control.

Concepts: Chemistry, Chemical element, Toxicology, Relative, Chemical compound, Analog


PURPOSE: To compare progressive dynamic, relative quantitative changes in glycans associated with retinal proteins of wild type (wt) and retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mice during neonatal development and degeneration of retinae. METHODS: Proteins extracted from retinae of postnatal day 2 (PN2), PN7, PN14 wt and rd1 mice were labeled with Cy3-fluorescent dye. Glycome of these proteins was quantified relatively by lectin microarray technique. Net fluorescence emitted by individual complexes formed between forty five lectins and Cy3-labeled proteins was measured by evanescent-field-fluorescence-assisted microarray reader. RESULTS: GlcNAcβ1-oligomer and high-mannose/Manα1-6Man were major glycans associated with the proteins of PN2, PN7, PN14 wt and rd1 mice retinae. Gal/GalNAc/Man3-core-bi-/tri-antennary-complex; Sia2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc and high-mannose glycans were mainly conjugated to proteins from PN7 rd1 and PN14 wt retinae, respectively. With increasing neonatal age, mannosylated, GlcNAcβ, and sialylated (minor component) glycans were increased and fucosylated GlcNAc/Galβ glycans were decreased significantly in wt retinal proteins. This trend was less evident in PN14 rd1 retinal proteins. Mouse retina was almost devoid of Siaα2-6 (except WGA bound Sia), Fucα1-2 and Gal/GalNAc containing glycans. STL reacting GlcNAc oligomers were high in PN2 rd1 retinae. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative dynamic, relative variation in high-mannose and GlcNAc glycans, Siaα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc associated with proteins from PN2, PN7, PN14 wt and rd1 mice retinae suggested that these glycans participate in retinal development and degeneration and may be used as markers for retinal electrophysiological integrity during transplantation/therapy studies; Siaα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc specific Agrocybe cylindracea lectin and other lectins may be used to enrich/purify retinal ribbon synapse glycoproteins and rhodopsin. Further investigations are required.

Concepts: Proteins, Gene, Glycoproteins, Retina, Relative, Carbohydrates, Glycoprotein, Lectin


For decades, electroencephalography (EEG) has been a useful tool for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying human psychological processes. However, the amount of time needed to gather EEG data means that most laboratory studies use relatively small sample sizes. Using the Muse, a portable and wireless four-channel EEG headband, we obtained EEG recordings from 6029 subjects 18-88 years in age while they completed a category exemplar task followed by a meditation exercise. Here, we report age-related changes in EEG power at a fine chronological scale for δ, θ, α, and β bands, as well as peak α frequency and α asymmetry measures for both frontal and temporoparietal sites. We found that EEG power changed as a function of age, and that the age-related changes depended on sex and frequency band. We found an overall age-related shift in band power from lower to higher frequencies, especially for females. We also found a gradual, year-by-year slowing of the peak α frequency with increasing age. Finally, our analysis of α asymmetry revealed greater relative right frontal activity. Our results replicate several previous age- and sex-related findings and show how some previously observed changes during childhood extend throughout the lifespan. Unlike previous age-related EEG studies that were limited by sample size and restricted age ranges, our work highlights the advantage of using large, representative samples to address questions about developmental brain changes. We discuss our findings in terms of their relevance to attentional processes and brain-based models of emotional well-being and aging.

Concepts: Sample, Brain, Sample size, Electroencephalography, Relative, Frequency, Ageing, Wavelength


With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs (“selfies”), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media-technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces greater disclosure risks (i.e., people exhibit greater disinhibition in their selfies, studies 1 and 2). This increased disclosure is driven by reduced privacy concerns (study 2). However, observers' impressions of sharers are insensitive to permanence (i.e., whether the selfie was shared temporarily versus permanently) and are instead driven by the disinhibition exhibited in the selfie (studies 4-7). As a result, induced by the promise of temporary sharing, sharers of uninhibited selfies come across as having worse judgment than those who share relatively discreet selfies (studies 1, 2, and 4-7)-an attributional pattern that is unanticipated by sharers (study 3), that persists days after the selfie has disappeared (study 5), is robust to personal experience with temporary sharing (studies 6A and 6B), and holds even among friends (studies 7A and 7B). Temporary sharing may bring back forgetting, but not without introducing new (self-presentational) challenges.

Concepts: Relative, Cultural studies, Relative clause, Advent, A-6 Intruder, Temporary work, Temporary, The Impressions


Herbicide use is among the most criticized aspects of modern farming, especially as it relates to genetically engineered (GE) crops. Many previous analyses have used flawed metrics to evaluate herbicide intensity and toxicity trends. Here, I show that herbicide use intensity increased over the last 25 years in maize, cotton, rice and wheat. Although GE crops have been previously implicated in increasing herbicide use, herbicide increases were more rapid in non-GE crops. Even as herbicide use increased, chronic toxicity associated with herbicide use decreased in two out of six crops, while acute toxicity decreased in four out of six crops. In the final year for which data were available (2014 or 2015), glyphosate accounted for 26% of maize, 43% of soybean and 45% of cotton herbicide applications. However, due to relatively low chronic toxicity, glyphosate contributed only 0.1, 0.3 and 3.5% of the chronic toxicity hazard in those crops, respectively.

Concepts: Agriculture, Toxicology, Relative, Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Herbicide, Glyphosate, Roundup


Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and © participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

Concepts: Relative, Abuse