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Concept: Regions of England


In winter 2013/14 a succession of storms hit the UK leading to record rainfall and flooding in many regions including south east England. In the Thames river valley there was widespread flooding, with clean-up costs of over £1 billion. There was no observational precedent for this level of rainfall. Here we present analysis of a large ensemble of high-resolution initialised climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated, and that in the current climate there remains a high chance of exceeding the observed record monthly rainfall totals in many regions of the UK. In south east England there is a 7% chance of exceeding the current rainfall record in at least one month in any given winter. Expanding our analysis to some other regions of England and Wales the risk increases to a 34% chance of breaking a regional record somewhere each winter.A succession of storms during the 2013-2014 winter led to record flooding in the UK. Here, the authors use high-resolution climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated and that there remains a high chance of exceeding observed record monthly rainfall totals in many parts of the UK.

Concepts: United Kingdom, England, Wales, English law, River Thames, London, City of London, Regions of England


To provide a framework that is able to categorise whether patients are able to adapt to and lead a ‘normal’ life with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to detail the factors that influence this.

Concepts: Ulcerative colitis, England, Regions of England, West Midlands, Greater London, North East England, East Midlands, Regional Assemblies in England


This paper compares patterns of smoking and high-risk alcohol use across regions in England, and assesses the impact on these of adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics.

Concepts: England, Regions of England, West Midlands, East Midlands, National Express Group


Implementing major system change in healthcare is not well understood. This gap may be addressed by analysing change in terms of interrelated components identified in the implementation literature, including decision to change, intervention selection, implementation approaches, implementation outcomes, and intervention outcomes.

Concepts: Scientific method, England, Massachusetts, Regions of England, Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, Metropolitan county


BACKGROUND: Comprehensive smokefree laws have now been introduced in several jurisdictions. Few studies have examined the association between smokefree laws and asthma in adults and these have limitations, such as lacking appropriate adjustment for long-term trends or having limited statistical power due to small study populations. This study addresses these limitations and evaluates the short-term impact of smokefree legislation in England. It aims to investigate whether the introduction of smokefree legislation on 1 July 2007 was associated with an immediate reduction in emergency hospital admissions for asthma in the adult population, and whether any association differs across regions. METHODS: We identified monthly numbers of emergency admissions for asthma (primary diagnosis, 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases code J45 and J46) in the nine Government Office Regions from April 1997 to December 2010 in the population aged 16 and over. A generalised additive model was fitted that adjusted for seasonality, variation in population size and region-specific, non-linear, long-term trends. RESULTS: Smokefree legislation was associated with an immediate 4.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 9.0%) reduction in emergency admissions for asthma in the adult population. This implies that approximately 1900 emergency admissions for asthma were prevented in each of the first 3 years after legislation was introduced. The reduction in admissions did not vary significantly across regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add to the expanding body of evidence that smokefree policies are associated with positive health outcomes. Further research evaluating the impact of legislation in other jurisdictions is needed to support these findings.

Concepts: Population, Population ecology, England, Term, Introduction, Adult, 1997, Regions of England


A growing number of Local Authorities (LAs) have introduced integrated wellness services as part of efforts to deliver cost effective, preventive services that address the social determinants of health. This study examined which elements of an integrated wellness service in the north east of England were effective in improving health and wellbeing (HWB).

Concepts: Population health, North, Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, East of England, Regions of England, North East England


We have previously reported that there is little evidence of population ‘cure’ amongst two populations of women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. ‘Cure’ has not yet been examined in the context of screen-detection.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, England, United States Census Bureau, Regions of England, West Midlands, Coventry, South West England


Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to assess the rules governing secondary school pupils' carriage of inhalers for emergency treatment of asthma in the North East of England. Design. This study was based upon a postal questionnaire survey. Setting. The setting for this study was mainstream free-to-attend secondary schools which admit 16 year old pupils within the 12 Local Authority areas which make up the North East of England. Participants. All 153 schools meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study, of which 106 (69%) took part. Main Outcome Measures. Our three main outcome measures were: whether pupils are permitted to carry inhalers on their person while at school; whether advance permission is required for pupils to carry inhalers, and from whom; and whether the school has an emergency ‘standby’ salbutamol inhaler for use in asthma emergencies, as permitted since October 2014 under recent amendments to The Human Medicines Regulations 2012. Results. Of 98 schools submitting valid responses to the question, 99% (n = 97) permitted pupils to carry inhalers on their person while at school; the remaining school stored pupils' inhalers in a central location within the school. A total of 22% of included schools (n = 22) required parental permission before pupils were permitted to carry inhalers. Of 102 schools submitting valid responses to the question, 44% (n = 45) had purchased a ‘standby’ salbutamol inhaler for use in asthma emergencies. Conclusions. Most secondary schools in North East England permit pupils to carry inhalers on their person. The requirement in a minority of schools for parental permission to be given possibly contravenes the standard ethical practices in clinical medicine for children of this age. Only a minority of schools hold a ‘standby’ salbutamol inhaler for use in asthma emergencies. Wider availability may improve outcomes for asthma emergencies occurring in schools.

Concepts: Asthma, High school, England, College, Primary education, Secondary school, Grammar school, Regions of England


Recent literature on Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) has reported on improvements in clinical outcomes, changes in employment status and the concept of recovery attributable to IAPT treatment, but not on the costs of the programme. This article reports the costs associated with a single session, completed course of treatment and recovery for four treatment courses (i.e., remaining in low or high intensity treatment, stepping up or down) in IAPT services in 5 East of England region Primary Care Trusts. Costs were estimated using treatment activity data and gross financial information, along with assumptions about how these financial data could be broken down. The estimated average cost of a high intensity session was £177 and the average cost for a low intensity session was £99. The average cost of treatment was £493 (low intensity), £1416 (high intensity), £699 (stepped down), £1514 (stepped up) and £877 (All). The cost per recovered patient was £1043 (low intensity), £2895 (high intensity), £1653 (stepped down), £2914 (stepped up) and £1766 (All). Sensitivity analysis revealed that the costs are sensitive to cost ratio assumptions, indicating that inaccurate ratios are likely to influence overall estimates. Results indicate the cost per session exceeds previously reported estimates, but cost of treatment is only marginally higher. The current cost estimates are supportive of the originally proposed IAPT model on cost-benefit grounds. The study also provides a framework to estimate costs using financial data, especially when programmes have block contract arrangements. Replication and additional analyses along with evidence-based discussion regarding alternative, cost-effective methods of intervention is recommended.

Concepts: Costs, Economics, Cost, Cost-benefit analysis, East of England, Optimism bias, Cost curve, Regions of England


Embedded research (ER) is recognized as one way to strengthen the integration of evidence into public health (PH) practice. In this paper, we outline a promising example of the co-production of research evidence between Fuse, the UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health and a local authority (LA) in north east England.

Concepts: Academic publishing, Research, Europe, England, East of England, Regions of England, North East England, County Durham