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Concept: Red River Delta


The prevalence of foodborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae was investigated in fish from 2 localities of northern Vietnam in 2004-2005. Freshwater fish (9 species) were collected from local markets in Hanoi City (n=76) and Nam Dinh Province (n=79), and were examined for FBT metacercariae using the artificial digestion technique. Adult flukes were obtained from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae at day 8 post-infection. Three (Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum varium) and 6 (Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, P. varium, Stellantchasmus falcatus, and Heterophyopsis continua) species of FBT metacercariae were detected in the 2 regions, respectively. Overall, among the positive fish species, H. pumilio metacercariae were detected in 104 (80.0%) of 130 fish examined (metacercarial density per infected fish; 64.2). C. formosanus metacercariae were found in 37 (40.2%) of 92 fish (metacercarial density; 14.7). P. varium metacercariae were detected in 19 (63.3%) of 30 fish (Anabas testudineus and Mugil cephalus) (metacercarial density; 247.7). S. falcatus metacercariae were found in all 10 M. cephalus examined (metacercarial density; 84.4). H. continua metacercariae (2 in number) were detected in 1 fish of Coilia lindmani. Morphologic characteristics of the FBT metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. The results have demonstrated that various FBT species are prevalent in northen parts of Vietnam.

Concepts: Prevalence, Anabas testudineus, Freshwater fish, Vietnam, Hanoi, Nam Dinh Province, Red River Delta, Ngo Dinh Diem


BACKGROUND: The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. METHODS: Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). RESULTS: The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level.

Concepts: Digenea, Carp, Cyprinidae, Aquaculture, Snail, Gastropoda, Red River Delta, Black carp


Human excreta is a low cost source of nutrients vital to plant growth, but also a source of pathogens transmissible to people and animals. We investigated the cost-savings and infection risk of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) in four scenarios where farmers used either inorganic fertilizer or fresh/composted human excreta supplemented by inorganic fertilizer to meet the nutrient requirements of rice paddies in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Our study included two main components: 1) a risk estimate of STH infection for farmers who handle fresh excreta, determined by systematic review and meta-analysis; and 2) a cost estimate of fertilizing rice paddies, determined by nutrient assessment of excreta, a retailer survey of inorganic fertilizer costs, and a literature review to identify region-specific inputs. Our findings suggest that farmers who reuse fresh excreta are 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.37, p-value<0.001) times more likely to be infected with any STH than those who do not handle excreta or who compost appropriately, and that risk varies by STH type (Ascaris lumbricoides RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.87-1.58, p-value = 0.29; Hookworm RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.50-2.06, p-value = 0.96; Trichuris trichiura RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.79-2.42, p-value = 0.26). Average cost-savings were highest for farmers using fresh excreta (847,000 VND) followed by those who composted for 6 months as recommended by the WHO (312,000 VND) and those who composted for a shorter time (5 months) with lime supplementation (37,000 VND/yr); however, this study did not assess healthcare costs of treating acute or chronic STH infections in the target group. Our study provides evidence that farmers in the Red River Delta are able to use a renewable and locally available resource to their economic advantage, while minimizing the risk of STH infection.

Concepts: Costs, Fertilizer, Cost, Vietnam, Hookworm, Parasitic worm, Red River Delta, Red River


To quantify salmonellosis risk in humans through consumption of boiled pork in urban Hung Yen Province, Vietnam, using a quantitative microbial risk assessment.

Concepts: Human, Agriculture, Morality, Risk assessment, Vietnam, Red River Delta, Provinces of Vietnam, Hung Yen Province


Analysis of over 500 groundwater samples from throughout the Red River Delta indicates de-coupling of dissolved arsenic (As) and dissolved iron (Fe). Sorting of all data along the redox potentials suggests re-adsorption of As released initially from Mn(IV)-oxyhydroxides and later from Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides on remaining ferric phases at moderate redox levels. A gradually decreasing specific surface area available for re-adsorption of As probably plays a role as a consequence of limited reactivity of more crystalline phases such as goethite and hematite. At low redox levels, concentrations of Fe and phosphate decrease, but As concentrations keep increasing and most As is present as As(III) with limited adsorption affinity. Based on the results of speciation modeling, the water is supersaturated with respect to siderite and vivianite. A general conceptual model of As and Fe behavior is presented, suggesting that coupled behavior is possible in two geochemical “windows”, i.e., 1: between saturation of remaining adsorption sites and the onset of siderite and vivianite precipitation, and 2: after the beginning of secondary sulfide phases precipitation and during methanogenesis. The de-coupling of As from Fe is common and has been observed at many sites around the world where As is released as a consequence of redox processes, e.g., in Bangladesh, West Bengal and Assam in India, the Mekong Delta in Cambodia and Vietnam, and Taiwan. The presented general conceptual model of de-coupling processes can be applied to the interpretation of As and Fe data, and, thus, it can help in the preparation of a site conceptual model which is a necessary prerequisite for reactive transport modeling.

Concepts: Iron, Redox, River, Specific surface area, Vietnam, BET theory, Red River Delta, Red River


The use of biogas systems to treat livestock waste is a common practice in Vietnam. However, farmers' knowledge and practices of the safe and appropriate use of household biogas units (HBUs) are still limited and could negatively impact human, animal, and environmental health.

Concepts: Health, Human, Vietnam, Red River Delta, Provinces of Vietnam, Ha Nam Province


Radioactivity concentrations of nuclides of the232Th and238U radioactive chains and40K,90Sr,137Cs, and239+240Pu were surveyed for raw and cooked food of the population in the Red River delta region, Vietnam, using α-, γ-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The concentration of40K in the cooked food was the highest compared to those of other radionuclides ranging from (23 ± 5) (rice) to (347 ± 50) Bq kg-1dw (tofu). The210Po concentration in the cooked food ranged from its limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mBq kg-1 dw (rice) to (4.0 ± 1.6) Bq kg-1 dw (marine bivalves). The concentrations of other nuclides of the232Th and238U chains in the food were low, ranging from LOD of 0.02 Bq kg-1 dw to (1.1 ± 0.3) Bq kg-1 dw. The activity concentrations of90Sr,137Cs, and239+240Pu in the food were minor compared to that of the natural radionuclides. The average annual committed effective dose to adults in the study region was estimated and it ranged from 0.24 to 0.42 mSv a-1with an average of 0.32 mSv a-1, out of which rice, leafy vegetable, and tofu contributed up to 16.2%, 24.4%, and 21.3%, respectively. The committed effective doses to adults due to ingestion of regular diet in the Red River delta region, Vietnam are within the range determined in other countries worldwide. This finding suggests that Vietnamese food is safe for human consumption with respect to radiation exposure.

Concepts: Nuclear medicine, Radioactive decay, Vietnam, Radioactive contamination, Radionuclide, Effective dose, Scintillation counter, Red River Delta


In previous classification studies, three non-parametric classifiers, Random Forest (RF), k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM), were reported as the foremost classifiers at producing high accuracies. However, only a few studies have compared the performances of these classifiers with different training sample sizes for the same remote sensing images, particularly the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imager (MSI). In this study, we examined and compared the performances of the RF, kNN, and SVM classifiers for land use/cover classification using Sentinel-2 image data. An area of 30 × 30 km² within the Red River Delta of Vietnam with six land use/cover types was classified using 14 different training sample sizes, including balanced and imbalanced, from 50 to over 1250 pixels/class. All classification results showed a high overall accuracy (OA) ranging from 90% to 95%. Among the three classifiers and 14 sub-datasets, SVM produced the highest OA with the least sensitivity to the training sample sizes, followed consecutively by RF and kNN. In relation to the sample size, all three classifiers showed a similar and high OA (over 93.85%) when the training sample size was large enough, i.e., greater than 750 pixels/class or representing an area of approximately 0.25% of the total study area. The high accuracy was achieved with both imbalanced and balanced datasets.

Concepts: Sample size, Accuracy and precision, Statistical classification, Support vector machine, Remote sensing, Red River Delta, Red River


This paper reviews the current quality of groundwater in Vietnam. In Vietnam, groundwater is obtained primarily from tubewells, which have high concentrations of pollutants such as As, Fe, Mn, and NH4(+). In the areas where groundwater tests were conducted, arsenic levels ranged from 0.1-3050 μg/L, which substantially exceed the standard of 10 μg/L which has been established by the WHO. Contamination sources are distributed over a large area from the Red River Delta in the north to the Mekong River Delta in the south, putting as many as ten million people at risk of adverse health effects. Levels of arsenic and iron in sediment are strongly correlated, which indicate that the presence of arsenic in groundwater results from the reduction of arsenic bound to iron oxyhydroxides. It is important to raise awareness of these issues among the Vietnamese public by disseminating information about the negative effects of contaminated drinking water, as well as carrying out long-term research projects to identify other sources of contamination and improving water treatment technology and water management capabilities.

Concepts: Water pollution, River, Yunnan, Vietnamese language, Vietnam, Sediment transport, Red River Delta, Mekong Delta


Earlier studies have reported the occurrence of cyclic and linear siloxanes in personal care and household products. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information on the occurrence of siloxanes in indoor air. In this study, four cyclic and six linear siloxanes were measured in 97 indoor air samples collected from various micro-environments in four cities in northern, Vietnam, during September 2016 to January 2017. The total concentrations of siloxanes (TSi) in particulate and gas phases ranged from 141 to 7220 μg g(-1) (mean: 1880) and 23.8-1580 ng m(-3) (mean: 321), respectively. The total concentrations of cyclic siloxanes (TCSi), linear siloxanes (TLSi), and TSi in indoor air were 1.91-1500 ng m(-3), 21.8-817 ng m(-3), and 41.8-1950 ng m(-3), respectively. The highest mean concentration of siloxanes was found in indoor air from hair salons in Hanoi. The concentrations of siloxanes in air collected from homes in Hanoi were higher than those from other smaller cities such as Bacninh, Thaibinh, and Tuyenquang. The human exposures to siloxanes through inhalation were estimated for various age groups based on the measured concentrations. The mean inhalation exposure doses to total siloxanes for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults were 352, 219, 188, 132, and 95.9 ng kg-bw(-1) d(-1), respectively.

Concepts: Concentration, Vietnam, Red River Delta, Siloxane, 2016, 2017