SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Red Bull

48

There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations. Caffeinated chewing gum improved endurance cycling performance, and there is limited evidence that repeated sprint cycling and power production may also be improved. Mouth rinsing with caffeine may stimulate nerves with direct links to the brain, in addition to caffeine absorption in the mouth. However, caffeine mouth rinsing has not been shown to have significant effects on cognitive performance. Delivering caffeine with mouth rinsing improved short-duration, high-intensity, repeated sprinting in normal and depleted glycogen states, while the majority of the literature indicates no ergogenic effect on aerobic exercise performance, and resistance exercise has not been adequately studied. Studies with caffeinated energy drinks have generally not examined the individual effects of caffeine on performance, making conclusions about this form of caffeine delivery impossible. Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. Overall, more research is needed examining alternate forms of caffeine delivery including direct measures of brain activation and entry of caffeine into the blood, as well as more studies examining trained athletes and female subjects.

Concepts: Coffee, Strength training, Caffeine, Tea, Energy drink, Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Guarana

34

Highly caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are popular with adolescents and young adults, but longitudinal consumption patterns are poorly understood especially in relation to other substance use.

Concepts: Coffee, Caffeine, Soft drink, Energy drink, Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Guarana, Jolt Cola

28

Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years. The primary ingredients in many energy drinks include caffeine (CAF) in various forms, as well as taurine. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, crossover study was to examine the effect of sugar-free (SF) Red Bull (RB) containing CAF and taurine to a CAF only drink and a SF, CAF-free placebo (PL) on one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and the volume load (VL; repetitions x kg at 70% 1RM) during one BP set to failure in experienced weight lifters. Seventeen college-age men randomly received: (A) 500 ml of SF-RB containing CAF (160 mg) and taurine (2000 mg); (B) 500 ml of a SF drink containing CAF only (160 mg); or © a SF, CAF-free 500 ml PL drink 60 min prior to testing on three separate occasions. Following a standard warm-up, the 1RM was determined for each subject and, after 5 min rest, they completed repetitions to failure at 70% of their 1RM to assess VL. Differences between trials for 1RM BP and the VL were identified using repeated measures ANOVA (p<0.05). The results indicated that neither SF-RB nor the CAF drink had any effect on 1RM BP (115.13 ± 16.19 kg and 114.87 ± 16.16 kg, respectively) or VL (1173.08 ± 170.66 kg and 1164.14 ± 147.03 kg, respectively) compared to PL (1RM = 114.07 ± 16.09 kg; VL= 1141.46 ± 193.41 kg). Although the CAF content in the energy drinks used in the present study was low (∼2.0 mg·kg), the finding of no effect of the CAF containing energy drinks for 1RM BP are in agreement with previous studies using intakes up to 6.0 mg·kg. These findings suggest that SF-RB has no effect on upper body 1RM strength or VL in resistance trained men.

Concepts: Trigraph, Caffeine, Energy drink, Red Bull, Jägerbomb, Krating Daeng, Slow Cow, Dietrich Mateschitz

6

An emerging trend in sports nutrition is the consumption of energy drinks and “energy shots”. Energy shots may prove to be a viable pre-competition supplement for runners. Six male runners (mean ± SD age and VO2max: 22.5 ± 1.8 years and 69.1 ± 5.7 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed three trials [placebo (PLA; 0 mg caffeine), Guayakí Yerba Maté Organic Energy Shot™ (YM; 140 mg caffeine), or Red Bull Energy Shot™ (RB; 80 mg caffeine)]. Treatments were ingested following a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants ran a five kilometer time trial on a treadmill. No differences (p > 0.05) in performance were detected with RB (17.55 ± 1.01 min) or YM ingestion (17.86 ± 1.59 min) compared to placebo (17.44 ± 1.25 min). Overall, energy shot ingestion did not improve time-trial running performance in trained runners.

Concepts: Coffee, Caffeine, Energy drink, Red Bull, Jägerbomb, Krating Daeng, Coca-Cola, Guarana

4

Highly caffeinated “energy drinks” (ED) are commonly consumed and sometimes mixed with alcohol. Associations between ED consumption, risk-taking, and alcohol-related problems have been observed. This study examines the relationship between ED consumption-both with and without alcohol-and drunk driving.

Concepts: Coffee, Caffeine, Alcoholic beverage, Kefir, Energy drink, Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Guarana

4

Context. Small studies have associated energy drinks-beverages that typically contain high concentrations of caffeine and other stimulants-with serious adverse health events. Objective. To assess the incidence and outcomes of toxic exposures to caffeine-containing energy drinks, including caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks, and to evaluate the effect of regulatory actions and educational initiatives on the rates of energy drink exposures. Methods. We analyzed all unique cases of energy drink exposures reported to the US National Poison Data System (NPDS) between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2011. We analyzed only exposures to caffeine-containing energy drinks consumed as a single product ingestion and categorized them as caffeine-containing non-alcoholic, alcoholic, or “unknown” for those with unknown formulations. Non-alcoholic energy drinks were further classified as those containing caffeine from a single source and those containing multiple stimulant additives, such as guarana or yerba mate. The data were analyzed for the demographics and outcomes of exposures (unknown data were not included in the denominator for percentages). The rates of change of energy drink-related calls to poison centers were analyzed before and after major regulatory events. Results. Of 2.3 million calls to the NPDS, 4854 (0.2%) were energy drink-related. The 3192 (65.8%) cases involving energy drinks with unknown additives were excluded. Of 1480 non-alcoholic energy drink cases, 50.7% were children < 6 years old; 76.7% were unintentional; and 60.8% were males. The incidence of moderate to major adverse effects of energy drink-related toxicity was 15.2% and 39.3% for non-alcoholic and alcoholic energy drinks, respectively. Major adverse effects consisted of three cases of seizure, two of non-ventricular dysrhythmia, one ventricular dysrhythmia, and one tachypnea. Of the 182 caffeinated alcoholic energy drink cases, 68.2% were < 20 years old; 76.7% were referred to a health care facility. Educational and legislative initiatives to enhance understanding of the health consequences of energy drink consumption were significantly associated with a decreased rate of energy drink-related cases (p = 0.036). Conclusions. About half the cases of energy drink-related toxicity involved unintentional exposures by children < 6 years old. Educational campaigns and legal restrictions on the sale of energy drinks were associated with decreasing calls to poison centers for energy drink toxicity and are encouraged.

Concepts: Coffee, Caffeine, Alcoholic beverage, Energy drink, Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Yerba maté, Guarana

2

To examine exposure to energy drink marketing among youth and young adults, and test perceptions of energy drink advertisements (ads) regarding target audience age and promoting energy drink use during sports.

Concepts: Coffee, Caffeine, Soft drink, Energy drink, Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Guarana, Jolt Cola

2

To determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance.

Concepts: Coffee, Caffeine, Soft drink, Energy drink, Red Bull, Coca-Cola, Guarana, Jolt Cola

2

Eckerson, JM, Bull, AJ, Baechle, TR, Fischer, CA, O'Brien, DC, Moore, GA, Yee, JC, and Pulverenti, TS. Acute ingestion of sugar-free red bull energy drink has no effect on upper body strength and muscular endurance in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2248-2254, 2013-Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years. The primary ingredients in many energy drinks include caffeine (CAF) in various forms and taurine. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, crossover study was to examine the effect of sugar-free (SF) Red Bull (RB) containing CAF and taurine to a CAF only drink and a SF CAF-free placebo (PL) on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and the volume load (VL; repetitions × kg at 70% 1RM) during one BP set to failure in experienced lifters. Seventeen college-age men randomly received the following: (A) 500 mL of SF-RB containing CAF (160 mg) and taurine (2000 mg); (B) 500 mL of a SF drink containing CAF only (160 mg); or © a SF CAF-free 500 mL PL drink 60 minutes before testing on 3 separate occasions. After a standard warm-up, the 1RM was determined for each subject and, after 5 minutes rest, they completed repetitions to failure at 70% of their 1RM to assess VL. Differences between trials for 1RM BP and the VL were identified using repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The results indicated that neither SF-RB nor the CAF drink had any effect on 1RM BP (115.13 ± 16.19 kg and 114.87 ± 16.16 kg, respectively) or VL (1173.08 ± 170.66 kg and 1164.14 ± 147.03 kg, respectively) compared with PL (1RM = 114.07 ± 16.09 kg; VL = 1141.46 ± 193.41 kg). Although the CAF content in the energy drinks used in the present study was low (∼2.0 mg/kg), the finding of no effect of the CAF containing energy drinks for 1RM BP are in agreement with previous studies using intakes up to 6.0 mg/kg. These findings suggest that SF-RB has no effect on upper body 1RM strength or VL in resistance trained men.

Concepts: Trigraph, Caffeine, Gh, Energy drink, Red Bull, Jägerbomb, Krating Daeng, Slow Cow

1

The present study compared the cognitive and mood effects of two commercially available products, Red Bull energy drink 250 mL and Red Bull Sugarfree energy drink 250 mL, together with a matching placebo 250 mL. Twenty-four healthy young volunteers took part in a randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind, three-way cross-over study. Cognitive function was assessed using an integrated set of nine computerised tests of attention, working and episodic memory. On each study day the volunteers received a standardised breakfast prior to completing a baseline performance on cognitive tests and mood scales, followed by the consumption of the study drink. The cognitive tests and scales were then re-administered at 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Red Bull was found to produce significant improvements over both the Sugarfree version and the placebo drink on two composite scores from the six working and episodic memory tests; one combining the 12 accuracy measures from the six tasks and the other the average speed of correct responses from the working memory and episodic recognition memory tasks. These improvements were in the range of a medium effect size, which reflects a substantial enhancement to memory in young volunteers.

Concepts: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Cognition, Memory, Effect size, Episodic memory, Working memory, Red Bull