SciCombinator

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Concept: Rectal prolapse

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Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children. It is often related to prolonged excessive straining or abnormal defecation and clinically presents as rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, feeling of incomplete defecation, and rarely rectal prolapse. SRUS is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings. The current treatments are suboptimal, and despite correct diagnosis, outcomes can be unsatisfactory. Some treatment protocols for SRUS include conservative management such as family reassurance, regulation of toilet habits, avoidance of straining, encouragement of a high-fiber diet, topical treatments with salicylate, sulfasalazine, steroids and sucralfate, and surgery. In children, SRUS is relatively uncommon but troublesome and easily misdiagnosed with other common diseases, however, it is being reported more than in the past. This condition in children is benign; however, morbidity is an important problem as reflected by persistence of symptoms, especially rectal bleeding. In this review, we discuss current diagnosis and treatment for SRUS.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Asthma, Medical terms, Surgery, Symptom, Rectum, Rectal prolapse

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PURPOSE: This study prospectively compared the diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with conventional defecography (CD) in outlet obstruction syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients with clinical symptoms of outlet obstruction underwent pelvic MR examination. The MR imaging protocol included static T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) images in the sagittal, axial and coronal planes; dynamic midsagittal T2-weighted single-shot (SS)-FSE and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) cine images during contraction, rest, straining and defecation. MR images (including and then excluding the evacuation phase) were compared with CD, which is considered the reference standard. RESULTS: Comparison between CD and MR with evacuation phase (MRWEP) showed no significant differences in sphincter hypotonia, dyssynergia, rectocele or rectal prolapse and significant differences in descending perineum. Comparison between CD and MR without evacuation phase (MRWOEP) showed no significant differences in sphincter hypotonia, dyssynergia or enterocele but significant differences in rectocele, rectal prolapse and descending perineum. Comparison between MRWEP and MRWOEP showed no significant differences in sphincter hypotonia, dyssynergia, enterocele or descending perineum but significant differences in rectocele, rectal prolapse, peritoneocele, cervical cystoptosis and hysteroptosis. CONCLUSIONS: MR imaging provides morphological and functional study of pelvic floor structures and may offer an imaging tool complementary to CD in multicompartment evaluation of the pelvis. An evacuation phase is mandatory.

Concepts: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Rectum, Coronal plane, Perineum, Rectal prolapse

28

Optimal management of rectal prolapse requires multiple clinical considerations with respect to treatment options, particularly for surgeons who must counsel and give realistic expectations to rectal prolapse patients. Rectal prolapse outcomes are good with respect to recurrence. Although posterior rectopexy remains most popular in the United States, increasingly surgeons perform ventral rectopexy to repair rectal prolapse. Functional outcomes vary and are fair after rectal prolapse repair. Although incarceration with rectal prolapse is rare, it is potentially life threatening and requires immediate and effective measures to adequately address in the acute setting.

Concepts: United States, Surgery, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Spanish language, Acute accent, Rectal prolapse

28

BACKGROUND: In obstructive defecation syndrome (ODS) combinations of morphologic alterations of the pelvic floor and the colorectum are nearly always evident. Laparoscopic resection rectopexy (LRR) aims at restoring physiological function. We present the results of 19 years of experience with this procedure in patients with ODS. METHODS: Between 1993 and 2012, 264 patients underwent LRR for ODS at our department. Perioperative and follow-up data were analyzed. RESULTS: The female/male ratio was 25.4:1, mean age was 61.3 years (±14.3 years), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.2 kg/m(2) (±4.2 kg/m(2)). The pathological conditions most frequently found in combination were a sigmoidocele plus a rectocele (n = 79) and a sigmoidocele plus a rectal prolapse or intussusception (n = 69). The conversion rate was 2.3 % (n = 6). The mortality rate was 0.75 % (n = 2), the rate of complications requiring surgical re-intervention was 4.3 % (n = 11), and the rate of minor complications was 19.8 % (n = 51). Follow-up data were available for 161 patients with a mean follow-up of 58.2 months (±47.1 months). Long-term results showed that 79.5 % of patients (n = 128) reported at least an improvement of symptoms. In cases of a sigmoidocele (n = 63 available for follow-up) or a rectal prolapse II°/III° (n = 72 available for follow-up), the improvement rates were 79.4 % (n = 50) and 81.9 % (n = 59), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LRR is a safe and effective procedure. Our perioperative results and long-term functional outcome strengthen the evidence regarding benefits of LRR in patients with an outlet obstruction. However, careful patient selection is essential.

Concepts: Time, Obesity, Surgery, Body mass index, Pelvis, Rectum, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse

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To explore the effect of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor muscle function.

Concepts: Uterus, Hormone, Menopause, Muscle, Pelvis, Pelvic floor, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse

27

Ventral rectopexy is a validated treatment for rectal prolapse with a low morbidity rate but a risk of intrarectal mesh migration. The purpose of this study was to report the results of local transanal mesh excision for intrarectal mesh migration after ventral rectopexy.

Concepts: Surgery, Rectal prolapse

27

To investigate attitudes toward hysterectomy in women seeking care for pelvic organ prolapse.

Concepts: Uterus, Hysterectomy, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse

27

In spite of rapid growth in the use of vaginally placed mesh in pelvic reconstructive surgery, there are few reports on the long-term efficacy and safety of mesh-augmented repairs.

Concepts: Surgery, Reconstructive surgery, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis

26

Perineal approaches for rectal prolapse repair have low complication rates but high recurrence rates, while abdominal approaches that include sigmoidopexy have lower recurrence rates but higher complication rates. To optimize both recurrence and complication rates, we developed a novel procedure that uses transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to perform a sigmoidopexy via a perineal approach.

Concepts: Surgery, Developed country, Rectum, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse

8

Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has level 1 evidence of reducing the size and symptoms associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). There is scant knowledge, however, regarding whether PFMT has an effect on sexual function.

Concepts: Childbirth, Biology, Randomized controlled trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Pelvic floor, Prolapse, Rectal prolapse