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Concept: Recreation


Scientists have traditionally studied recreation in nature by conducting surveys at entrances to major attractions such as national parks. This method is expensive and provides limited spatial and temporal coverage. A new source of information is available from online social media websites such as flickr. Here, we test whether this source of “big data” can be used to approximate visitation rates. We use the locations of photographs in flickr to estimate visitation rates at 836 recreational sites around the world, and use information from the profiles of the photographers to derive travelers' origins. We compare these estimates to empirical data at each site and conclude that the crowd-sourced information can indeed serve as a reliable proxy for empirical visitation rates. This new approach offers opportunities to understand which elements of nature attract people to locations around the globe, and whether changes in ecosystems will alter visitation rates.

Concepts: Statistics, Mathematics, Science, Travel, Universe, Tourism, Social media, Recreation


Although the time adolescents spend with digital technologies has sparked widespread concerns that their use might be negatively associated with mental well-being, these potential deleterious influences have not been rigorously studied. Using a preregistered plan for analyzing data collected from a representative sample of English adolescents ( n = 120,115), we obtained evidence that the links between digital-screen time and mental well-being are described by quadratic functions. Further, our results showed that these links vary as a function of when digital technologies are used (i.e., weekday vs. weekend), suggesting that a full understanding of the impact of these recreational activities will require examining their functionality among other daily pursuits. Overall, the evidence indicated that moderate use of digital technology is not intrinsically harmful and may be advantageous in a connected world. The findings inform recommendations for limiting adolescents' technology use and provide a template for conducting rigorous investigations into the relations between digital technology and children’s and adolescents' health.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Function, Technology, Function model, Digital, Recreation, Quadratic function


PURPOSELittle is known about the association of recreational physical activity or leisure time spent sitting with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. This study examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis recreational physical activity and leisure time spent sitting with mortality among patients with colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODSFrom a cohort of adults without colorectal cancer at baseline in 1992-1993, we identified 2,293 participants who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer up to mid-2007. At baseline, before their cancer diagnosis, and again after their cancer diagnosis, participants completed detailed questionnaires that included information concerning recreational physical activity and leisure time spent sitting. RESULTS: relative risk [RR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89; postdiagnosis physical activity: RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.71). Spending 6 or more hours per day of leisure time sitting compared with fewer than 3 hours per day was associated with higher all-cause mortality (prediagnosis sitting time: RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.68; postdiagnosis sitting time: RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.64). CONCLUSIONMore recreational physical activity before and after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with lower mortality, whereas longer leisure time spent sitting was associated with higher risk of death.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Actuarial science, Relative risk, Colorectal cancer, Leisure, Recreation


Despite threats to human wellbeing from ecological degradation, public engagement with this issue remains at low levels. However, studies have shown that crafting messages to resonate with people’s personal experiences can enhance engagement. Recreational fishing is one of the principal ways in which people interact with aquatic environments, but long-term data from this perspective are considered rare. We uncovered 852 popular media records of recreational fishing for an Australian estuary across a 140-year period. Using information contained in these articles we analysed the species composition of recreational catches over time and constructed two distinct time series of catch and effort (n fish fisher-1 trip-1; kg fish fisher-1 trip-1) for recreational fishing trips and fishing club competitions (mean n and kg fish caught across all competitors, and n and kg fish caught by the competition winner). Reported species composition remained similar over time. Catch rates reported from recreational fishing trips (1900-1998) displayed a significant decline, averaging 32.5 fish fisher-1 trip-1 prior to 1960, and 18.8 fish fisher-1 trip-1 post-1960. Mean n fish fisher-1 competition-1 (1913-1983) also significantly declined, but best n fish fisher-1 competition-1 (1925-1980) displayed no significant change, averaging 31.2 fish fisher-1 competition-1 over the time series. Mean and best kg fish fisher-1 competition-1 trends also displayed no significant change, averaging 4.2 and 9.9 kg fisher-1 competition-1, respectively. These variable trends suggest that while some fishers experienced diminishing returns in this region over the last few decades, the most skilled inshore fishers were able to maintain their catch rates, highlighting the difficulties inherent in crafting conservation messages that will resonate with all sections of a community. Despite these challenges, this research demonstrates that popular media sources can provide multiple long-term trends at spatial scales, in units and via a recreational experience that many people can relate to.

Concepts: Fishing, Catch and release, Recreational fishing, Angling, Overfishing, Fishing techniques, Recreation, Big-game fishing


Fishing is a common pastime. In the developed world, it is commonly performed as a recreational activity. We aim to determine injury patterns and outcomes among patients injured while ice fishing.

Concepts: United States, Ice, Developed country, United Kingdom, Canada, Republic of China, Recreation, Ice fishing


Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b) occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and © temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists. Grizzly bears were spatially separated from black bears, selecting higher elevations and locations farther from roads. Both species co-occurred with motorised and non-motorised recreation, however, grizzly bears reduced their intensity of use of sites with motorised recreation present. Black bears showed higher temporal activity overlap with recreational activity than grizzly bears, however differences in bear daily activity patterns between sites with and without motorised and non-motorised recreation were not significant. Reduced intensity of use by grizzly bears of sites where motorised recreation was present is a concern given off-road recreation is becoming increasingly popular in North America, and can negatively influence grizzly bear recovery by reducing foraging opportunities near or on trails. Camera traps and multi-species occurrence models offer non-invasive methods for identifying how habitat use by animals changes relative to sympatric species, including humans. These conclusions emphasise the need for integrated land-use planning, access management, and grizzly bear conservation efforts to consider the implications of continued access for motorised recreation in areas occupied by grizzly bears.

Concepts: Human, British Columbia, Bear, American Black Bear, Bears, Recreation, Grizzly Bear, Banff National Park


Stigma and discrimination are faced by many with mental health problems and this may affect the uptake of services and engagement in leisure and recreational activities. The aims of this study were to develop a schedule to measure the impact of stigma and discrimination on service use, employment and leisure activities and to estimate the value of such reductions.

Concepts: Psychology, Measurement, Economics, Psychometrics, Mental disorder, Personal life, Leisure, Recreation


Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0-33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group.

Concepts: Ingestion, Coprophagia, Turtle, Vertebrate, Freshwater fish, Fishing, Recreation, Fish hook


Promoting active travel is an important part of increasing population physical activity, which has both physical and mental health benefits. A key benefit described by the then Scottish Government of the five-mile M74 motorway extension, which opened during June 2011 in the south of Glasgow, was that the forecast reduction in motor traffic on local streets would make these streets safer for walking and cycling, thus increasing active travel by the local population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of new motorway infrastructure on the proportion of journey stages made actively (cycling or on foot) by individuals travelling in and out of the local area.

Concepts: Function, Scotland, Road, Glasgow, Scottish Parliament, Edinburgh, Recreation, A74(M) and M74 motorways


A small proportion of pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries are serious enough to be considered “major trauma.” However, the immediate and long-term consequences in cases of pediatric major trauma are significant and potentially life-threatening. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and outcomes of pediatric major traumas related to sport and recreational activities in Nova Scotia.

Concepts: Retrospective, Psychological trauma, Nova Scotia, Recreation