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Concept: Recovery


Coherent X-ray photons with energies higher than 50 keV offer new possibilities for imaging nanoscale lattice distortions in bulk crystalline materials using Bragg peak phase retrieval methods. However, the compression of reciprocal space at high energies typically results in poorly resolved fringes on an area detector, rendering the diffraction data unsuitable for the three-dimensional reconstruction of compact crystals. To address this problem, we propose a method by which to recover fine fringe detail in the scattered intensity. This recovery is achieved in two steps: multiple undersampled measurements are made by in-plane sub-pixel motion of the area detector, then this data set is passed to a sparsity-based numerical solver that recovers fringe detail suitable for standard Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) reconstruction methods of compact single crystals. The key insight of this paper is that sparsity in a BCDI data set can be enforced by recognising that the signal in the detector, though poorly resolved, is band-limited. This requires fewer in-plane detector translations for complete signal recovery, while adhering to information theory limits. We use simulated BCDI data sets to demonstrate the approach, outline our sparse recovery strategy, and comment on future opportunities.

Concepts: Crystal, Diffraction, Optics, Light, Electromagnetic radiation, Materials science, Reciprocal lattice, Recovery


In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual’s optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual’s vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level. Recovery from PSD was also associated with the improvement in glycometabolism, thyrotropic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Additionally, the increase (rebound) in total sleep time from HSD at the first extended sleep would be a simple indicator of PSD. These findings confirmed self-evaluating the degree of sleep debt at home as a useful clinical marker. To establish appropriate sleep habits, it is necessary to evaluate OSD, vulnerability to sleep loss, and sleep homeostasis characteristics on an individual basis.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Individual, Homeostasis, Recovery model, Degree of a polynomial, Recovery, Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep


Since self-efficacy is a positive predictor of substance use treatment outcome, we investigated whether it is associated with spirituality within a religious 12-step program. This was a cross-sectional survey (N = 91) of 10 different Celebrate Recovery sites held at community churches. The mean spirituality score for those with high confidence was significantly greater than those with low confidence. Spirituality associated with greater confidence to resist substance use (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17, P < 0.05). So every unit increase of measured spirituality increased the odds of being above the median in self-efficacy by 9%. We conclude that spirituality may be an important explanatory variable in outcomes of a faith-based 12-step recovery program.

Concepts: Arithmetic mean, Recovery model, Drug rehabilitation, Spirituality, Recovery, Higher Power, Twelve-step program, Twelve-step programs


Waste streams offer a compelling opportunity to recover phosphorus (P). 15-20% of world demand for phosphate rock could theoretically be satisfied by recovering phosphorus from domestic waste streams alone. For very dilute streams (<10mgPL(-1)), including domestic wastewater, it is necessary to concentrate phosphorus in order to make recovery and reuse feasible. This review discusses enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) as a key technology to achieve this. EBPR relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) to take up phosphorus from waste streams, so concentrating phosphorus in biomass. The P-rich biosolids can be either directly applied to land, or solubilized and phosphorus recovered as a mineral product. Direct application is effective, but the product is bulky and carries contaminant risks that need to be managed. Phosphorus release can be achieved using either thermochemical or biochemical methods, while recovery is generally by precipitation as struvite. We conclude that while EBPR technology is mature, the subsequent phosphorus release and recovery technologies need additional development.

Concepts: DNA, Biology, Organism, Water, Phosphate, Phosphorus, Enhanced biological phosphorus removal, Recovery


We examined recovery from postconcussion syndrome (PCS) in a series of 285 patients, diagnosed with concussion based on international sport concussion criteria, who received a questionnaire regarding recovery . Of 141 respondents, those with postconcussion symptoms lasting less than 3 months, a positive CT and/or MRI, litigants, and known Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM)-positive cases were excluded, leaving 110 eligible respondents. We found that only 27% of our population eventually recovered, and 67% of those who recovered did so within the first year. Notably, no eligible respondent recovered from PCS lasting 3 years or longer. Those who did not recover (n = 80) were more likely to be non-compliant with a do not return to play recommendation (p = 0.006) , but did not differ from the recovered group (n = 30) in other demographic variables including age and sex (p ≥ 0.05). Clustergram analysis revealed that symptoms tended to appear in a predictable order, such that symptoms later in the order were more likely to be present if those earlier in the order were already present . Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that the more symptoms reported, the longer the time to recovery (p = 7.4 x 10-6), with each additional symptom reducing the recovery rate by approximately 20%. This is the first longitudinal PCS study to focus on PCS defined specifically as a minimum of 3 months of symptoms, negative CT and/or MRI, negative TOMM test, and no litigation. PCS may be permanent if recovery has not occurred by 3 years. Symptoms appear in a predictable order, and each additional PCS symptom reduces recovery rate by 20%. More long-term follow-up studies are needed to examine recovery from PCS.

Concepts: Time, Regression analysis, Sociology, Fatigue, David Cox, Post-concussion syndrome, Recovery model, Recovery


Synthetic DNA is durable and can encode digital data with high density, making it an attractive medium for data storage. However, recovering stored data on a large-scale currently requires all the DNA in a pool to be sequenced, even if only a subset of the information needs to be extracted. Here, we encode and store 35 distinct files (over 200 MB of data), in more than 13 million DNA oligonucleotides, and show that we can recover each file individually and with no errors, using a random access approach. We design and validate a large library of primers that enable individual recovery of all files stored within the DNA. We also develop an algorithm that greatly reduces the sequencing read coverage required for error-free decoding by maximizing information from all sequence reads. These advances demonstrate a viable, large-scale system for DNA data storage and retrieval.

Concepts: Molecular biology, Sequence, Storage, Electronic media, Computer data storage, Oligonucleotide, Library, Recovery


Chiropractors expect the typical patient to recover fully or to improve quickly with treatment if relapses occur. However, a mismatch between expectations and outcome would have a negative effect on both the chiropractors' professional self-esteem and patients' satisfaction with care. The prevalence of three types of recovery patterns among patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP) was calculated: 1: A full sustained recovery. 2: Initial recovery, but with one or several relapses followed by a period of recovery. 3: No initial recovery, but at least one period of recovery during the six month course of the study. Also, the number of patients classified as recovered at the end of the study was calculated.

Concepts: Spinal disc herniation, Low back pain, Back pain, Patient, Acupuncture, Massage, Chiropractic, Recovery


In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)-as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing-but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks-from satellite radiation and surface temperature data-suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Temperature, Gas, Atmosphere, Greenhouse gas, Global warming, Global climate model, Recovery


The physical demands and combative nature of rugby lead to notable levels of muscle damage. In professional rugby, athletes only have a limited timeframe to recover following training sessions and competition. Through the implementation of recovery strategies, sport scientists, practitioners and coaches have sought to reduce the effect of fatigue and allow athletes to recover faster. Although some studies demonstrate that recovery strategies are extensively used by rugby athletes, the research remains equivocal concerning the efficacy of recovery strategies in rugby. Moreover, given the role of inflammation arising from muscle damage in the mediation of protein synthesis mechanisms, some considerations have been raised on the long-term effect of using certain recovery modalities that diminish inflammation. While some studies aimed to understand the effects of recovery modalities during the acute recovery phase (<48 h post-match), others investigated the effect of recovery modalities during a more prolonged timeframe (i.e. during a training week). Regarding the acute effectiveness of different recovery modalities, cold water immersion and contrast baths seem to provide a beneficial effect on creatine kinase clearance, neuromuscular performance and delayed onset of muscle soreness. There is support in the literature concerning the effect of compression garments on enhancing recovery from delayed onset of muscle soreness; however, conflicting findings were observed for the restoration of neuromuscular function with the use of this strategy. Using a short-duration active recovery protocol seems to yield little benefit to recovery from rugby training or competition. Given that cold modalities may potentially affect muscle size adaptations from training, their inclusion should be treated with caution and perhaps restricted to certain periods where athlete readiness is more important than increases in muscle size.

Concepts: Effect, Effectiveness, Muscle, Affect, Efficacy, Acute accent, Recovery model, Recovery


To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (-24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the recovery of EMGRMS and performance. The reduction of surface electromyogram MPF, MdPF and burst duration due to fatigue is associated but not caused by muscle acidification and lactate accumulation. Despite metaboreflex stimulation, muscle activation and power output recovers partly in ischemia indicating that metaboreflex activation has a minor impact on sprint performance.

Concepts: Ischemia, Mean, Hypoxia, Lactic acid, Root mean square, Exercise physiology, Recovery model, Recovery