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Concept: Received Pronunciation

319

We report here trends in the usage of “mood” words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more “emotional” than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

Concepts: Dialect, English language, Emotion, Received Pronunciation, Grammatical mood, American English, British English, Hiberno-English

169

Abstract. Acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from febrile inpatients identified at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed brucellosis was defined as a positive blood culture or a ≥ 4-fold increase in microagglutination test titer, and probable brucellosis was defined as a single reciprocal titer ≥ 160. Among 870 participants enrolled in the study, 455 (52.3%) had paired sera available. Of these, 16 (3.5%) met criteria for confirmed brucellosis. Of 830 participants with ≥ 1 serum sample, 4 (0.5%) met criteria for probable brucellosis. Brucellosis was associated with increased median age (P = 0.024), leukopenia (odds ratio [OR] 7.8, P = 0.005), thrombocytopenia (OR 3.9, P = 0.018), and evidence of other zoonoses (OR 3.2, P = 0.026). Brucellosis was never diagnosed clinically, and although all participants with brucellosis received antibacterials or antimalarials in the hospital, no participant received standard brucellosis treatment. Brucellosis is an underdiagnosed and untreated cause of febrile disease among hospitalized adult and pediatric patients in northern Tanzania.

Concepts: Participation, Hospital, Blood type, Physician, Brucellosis, Fever, Blood culture, Received Pronunciation

78

There is currently widespread concern that access to, and success within, the British acting profession is increasingly dominated by those from privileged class origins. This article seeks to empirically interrogate this claim using data on actors from the Great British Class Survey (N = 404) and 47 qualitative interviews. First, survey data demonstrate that actors from working-class origins are significantly underrepresented within the profession. Second, they indicate that even when those from working-class origins do enter the profession they do not have access to the same economic, cultural and social capital as those from privileged backgrounds. Third, and most significantly, qualitative interviews reveal how these capitals shape the way actors can respond to shared occupational challenges. In particular we demonstrate the profound occupational advantages afforded to actors who can draw upon familial economic resources, legitimate embodied markers of class origin (such as Received Pronunciation) and a favourable typecasting.

Concepts: Sociology, Quantitative research, Acting, Capital, Received Pronunciation, Working class, Five Capitals

28

Benefit from chemotherapy for well-differentiated/de-differentiated (WD/DD) liposarcomas has been reported to be minimal, however traditional response criteria may not adequately capture positive treatment effect. In this study, we evaluate benefit from first-line chemotherapy and characterize imaging response characteristics in patients with retroperitoneal (RP) WD/DD liposarcoma treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Response was assessed using RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and an exploratory analysis of vascular response was characterized. Among 82 patients evaluable for response to first-line therapy, 31 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for localized/locally advanced disease; 51 received chemotherapy for unresectable recurrent/metastatic disease. Median overall survival from the start of chemotherapy was 29 months (95% CI 24-40 months). Response rates by RECIST: partial response (PR) 21% (17/82), stable disease (SD) 40%, and progression (PD) 39%. All RECIST responses were in patients receiving combination chemotherapy. A qualitative vascular response was seen in 24 patients (31%). Combination chemotherapy yields a response rate of 24% and a clinical benefit rate (CR/PR/SD > 6 months) of 44%, higher than previously reported in DD liposarcoma. A higher percentage of patients experience a vascular response with chemotherapy that is not adequately captured by RECIST in these large heterogeneous tumors.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Response rate, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, TheStart, Received Pronunciation

26

We present the design and implementation of a rehabilitation program (RP) adapted for people diagnosed with various phases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The RP is a cognitive stimulation program that integrates the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine for aerobic, resistance, and balance exercises.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Medicine, Neurology, Memory, Design, Received Pronunciation

2

To document the efficacy of ultrasound biofeedback treatment for misarticulation of the North American English rhotic in children. Due to poor progress in the first cohort, a series of two closely related studies was conducted in place of a single study. The studies differed primarily in the nature of tongue shape targets (e.g. retroflex, bunched) cued during treatment.

Concepts: United States, English language, North America, Received Pronunciation, Canadian English, American English, North American English, Southern American English

1

The readiness potential (RP) is one of the most controversial topics in neuroscience and philosophy due to its perceived relevance to the role of conscious willing in action. Libet and colleagues reported that RP onset precedes both volitional movement and conscious awareness of willing that movement, suggesting that the experience of conscious will may not cause volitional movement (Libet, Gleason, Wright, & Pearl, 1983). Rather, they suggested that the RP indexes unconscious processes that may actually cause both volitional movement and the accompanying conscious feeling of will (Libet et al., 1983; pg. 640). Here, we demonstrate that volitional movement can occur without an accompanying feeling of will. We additionally show that the neural processes indexed by RPs are insufficient to cause the experience of conscious willing. Specifically, RPs still occur when subjects make self-timed, endogenously-initiated movements due to a post-hypnotic suggestion, without a conscious feeling of having willed those movements.

Concepts: Nervous system, Mind, Consciousness, Index, Potential, Unconscious mind, Hypnosis, Received Pronunciation

1

This study examined emotional modulation of word processing, showing that the recognition potential (RP), an ERP index of word recognition, could be modulated by different emotional states. In the experiment, participants were instructed to compete with pseudo-competitors, and via manipulation of the outcome of this competition, they were situated in neutral, highly positive, slightly positive, highly negative or slightly negative emotional states. They were subsequently asked to judge whether the referent of a word following a series of meaningless character segmentations was an animal or not. The emotional induction task and the word recognition task were alternated. Results showed that 1) compared with the neutral emotion condition, the peak latency of the RP under different emotional states was earlier and its mean amplitude was smaller, 2) there was no significant difference between RPs elicited under positive and negative emotional states in either the mean amplitude or latency, and 3) the RP was not affected by different degrees of positive emotional states. However, compared to slightly negative emotional states, the mean amplitude of the RP was smaller and its latency was shorter in highly negative emotional states over the left hemisphere but not over the right hemisphere. The results suggest that emotional states influence word processing.

Concepts: Left-wing politics, Addition, Modulation, Module, Emotion, Political spectrum, Received Pronunciation, Word processor

0

Several studies in mammals focused on the maternal programming of the metabolism by epigenetic mechanisms, while currently, the consequences of a maternal dietary treatment on the offspring performance of farm animals are of particular interest for commercial purpose. In the present study, we investigated if the zootechnical performance of the progeny was altered by a maternal dietary treatment, being a lower dietary crude protein (CP) of the grandparent and/or parent generation. The multigenerational effects of a reduced maternal CP content were investigated by reducing the dietary CP level by 25% in rearing and laying diets of pure line A breeders. The F0 generation breeders were fed either control © or reduced balanced protein (RP) diets. The F1 breeder generation was constructed by dividing the F0 female progeny again over a C or RP diet, resulting in 4 dietary treatments in the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP (letters indicating the diets in, respectively, F0 and F1 generations). The offspring performance was evaluated by a zootechnical and nitrogen retention trial on C and low-protein (LP) broiler diets. For the C broiler diet, the C/RP and RP/RP offspring were characterized by a higher BW from d 35 until d 42 compared to the C/C progeny, whereas the RP/C offspring had an intermediate BW that did not differ from the other groups. A tendency (P = 0.067) towards a better nitrogen retention was observed for the offspring of breeders that received the RP diets in F0 and/or F1 generation compared to the C/C progeny. For the LP broiler diet, the C/RP (P = 0.021) and RP/C (P = 0.001) offspring had a higher BW compared to the C/C progeny during the entire grow-out period. In addition, the C/RP offspring were characterized by a lower FCR from d 28 onwards (P = 0.021). In conclusion, dietary treatments imposed on mother hens can have direct effects on the next generation, as well as indirect effects on multiple generations.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Data, Nitrogen, Diet, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Received Pronunciation, Jonathan Frakes

0

There is substantial evidence that a speaker’s accent, specifically an unfamiliar accent, can affect the listener’s comprehension. In general, this effect holds true for both adults and children as well as those with typical and impaired language. Previous studies have investigated the effect of different accents on individuals with language disorders, but children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) have received little attention. The current study aims to learn more about the ability of children with SSD to process different speaker accents. Fifteen children with SSD aged between 4;01 and 5;11 years, and 16 typically developing children matched on language ability, age, socioeconomic status, gender and cognitive ability participated in the current study. A sentence comprehension task was carried out with each child, requiring them to follow instructions of increasing length spoken in three different accents - (i) a local Irish (Cork) accent, (ii) a regional North American accent and (iii) a non-native Indian English accent. Results showed no significant group difference and speaker accent did not significantly impact children’s performance on the task. The results are discussed in relation to factors that influence accent comprehension, and their implications for children’s underlying phonological representations.

Concepts: Psychology, Phonology, Language, Dialect, English language, Speech sound disorder, Received Pronunciation, English phonology