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Concept: Real Time Location Systems


Real-time locating systems (RTLS, also known as real-time location systems) have become an important component of many existing ubiquitous location aware systems. While GPS (global positioning system) has been quite successful as an outdoor real-time locating solution, it fails to repeat this success indoors. A number of RTLS technologies have been used to solve indoor tracking problems. The ability to accurately track the location of assets and individuals indoors has many applications in healthcare. This paper provides a condensed primer of RTLS in healthcare, briefly covering the many options and technologies that are involved, as well as the various possible applications of RTLS in healthcare facilities and their potential benefits, including capital expenditure reduction and workflow and patient throughput improvements. The key to a successful RTLS deployment lies in picking the right RTLS option(s) and solution(s) for the application(s) or problem(s) at hand. Where this application-technology match has not been carefully thought of, any technology will be doomed to failure or to achieving less than optimal results.

Concepts: Tracking, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Radio navigation, Ubiquitous computing, Real Time Location Systems, Wireless locating


Contact tracing is the systematic method of identifying individuals potentially exposed to infectious diseases. Electronic medical record (EMR) use for contact tracing is time-consuming and may miss exposed individuals. Real-time location systems (RTLSs) may improve contact identification. Therefore, the relative effectiveness of these 2 contact tracing methodologies were evaluated.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, Infection, Electronic medical record, Real Time Location Systems


To construct a real-time computerized location system (RCLS) to analyze and display the axis of corneal astigmatism and to compare its accuracy with the Scheimpflug method.

Concepts: Astigmatism, Real Time Location Systems, Embedded system, Axis powers, Axis of evil


Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization.

Concepts: Unified Modeling Language, The Current, Tracking, Track and field athletics, Real Time Location Systems


The benefits of regular physical activity for children are significant. Previous research has addressed the quantity and quality of children’s physical activity while in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, yet little research has investigated the social and physical environmental influences on physical activity in these settings. The outcomes of this study will be to measure these social and physical environmental influences on children’s physical activity using a combination of a real-time location system (RTLS) (a closed system that tracks the location of movement of participants via readers and tags), accelerometry and direct observation.

Concepts: Scientific method, Observational study, Education, Observation, Childhood, Topological space, Early childhood education, Real Time Location Systems


Hospital real-time location systems (RTLS) are increasing efficiency and reducing operational costs, but room access tags are necessary.

Concepts: Bluetooth, Radio navigation, Real Time Location Systems, Wibree, Bluetooth low energy


Clinical schedules drive resource utilization, cost, and patient wait time. Accurate appointment duration allocation ensures appropriate staffing ratios to daily caseloads and maximizes scarce resources. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) infusion appointment duration is adjusted by regimen using a consensus method of experts including pharmacists, nurses, and administrators. Using real-time location system (RTLS), we examined the accuracy of observed appointment duration compared with the scheduled duration.

Concepts: Cancer, Measurement, Psychometrics, Accuracy and precision, Scarcity, Resource allocation, Resource, Real Time Location Systems


The purpose of this project was to research and develop a direct-reading exposure assessment method that combined a real-time location system with a wireless direct-reading personal chemical sensor. The personal chemical sensor was a photoionization device for detecting volatile organic compounds. The combined system was calibrated and tested against the same four standard gas concentrations and calibrated at one standard location and tested at four locations that included the standard locations. Data were wirelessly collected from the chemical sensor every 1.4 seconds, for volatile organic compounds concentration, location, temperature, humidity, and time. Regression analysis of the photo-ionization device voltage response against calibration gases showed the chemical sensor had a limit of detection of 0.2 ppm. The real-time location system was accurate to 13 cm ± 6 cm (standard deviation) in an open area and to 57 cm ± 31 cm in a closed room where the radio frequency has to penetrate drywall-finished walls. The streaming data were collected and graphically displayed as a three-dimensional hazard map for assessment of peak exposure with location. A real-time personal exposure assessment device with indoor positioning was practical and provided new knowledge on direct reading exposure assessment methods.

Concepts: Statistics, Metrology, Standard deviation, Deviation, Volatile organic compound, Calibration, Real Time Location Systems, Streaming media


Real-time location systems (RTLS) and Lean management approaches have been employed to improve patient flow in clinical settings. This study explored the feasibility of using these methodologies in an outpatient resident ophthalmology clinic.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Real Time Location Systems


Each year, hospitals lose a considerable amount of time and money due to misplaced mobile assets. In addition the assets which remain in departments that frequently use them depreciate early, while other assets of the same type in different departments are rarely used. A real time locating system can prevent these losses when used with appropriate asset sharing policies.

Concepts: Real number, Investment, Policy, Depreciation, Ubiquitous computing, Real Time Location Systems, Asset, Real-time locating