Concept: Raynaud's phenomenon
OBJECTIVE: MQX-503 is a novel nitroglycerine preparation designed to absorb quickly and allow local vasodilatation in the skin. We examined the efficacy and tolerability of this medication in Raynaud phenomenon (RP) in a laboratory-based study. METHODS: In this multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, subjects were treated with 0.5% or 1.25% nitroglycerine or placebo gel. Subjects received each dose twice in a randomised order. Each study session consisted of baseline laser Doppler measurements, study gel application and 5 min of cold chamber exposure (-20°C). Blood flow (BF) was measured at the end of exposure and for the next 120 min at set intervals. Other outcome measures included achievement of baseline BF; the time to achieve 50% and 70% baseline skin temperature (ST); and pain, tingling and numbness scores. RESULTS: 37 subjects completed 214 treatment periods. Time to achieve baseline BF was significantly shorter in the two treated groups (HR=1.77 and 2.02 for 0.5% and 1.25% vs placebo, respectively). The proportion of subjects achieving baseline BF was 45.8% for placebo, 66.2% for 0.5% and 69% for 1.25% (p=0.01 and p=0.002 for 0.5% and 1.25% vs placebo, respectively). No meaningful differences were seen in ST or pain/numbness/tingling scores. Treatment was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with MQX-503 caused a significant improvement in skin BF compared with placebo. Data from this proof of concept study suggest benefit of MQX-503 in subjects with RP.
Raynaud’s phenomenon often precedes the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis and is the first symptom of the disease in many cases. Antinuclear antibody positivity can assist in the early identification of cases of isolated Raynaud’s phenomenon likely to progress to systemic sclerosis. However, the specific differences between rate of progression for different scleroderma hallmark antibodies is less clear. We review the predictive potential of ANA positivity and nailfold capillaroscopy for identifying cases of Raynaud’s phenomenon which may progress to connective tissue diseases. We also have reviewed data from our own large scleroderma cohort to explore the relationship between antibody subtype and time to development of SSc. Duration of pre-existing Raynaud’s phenomenon may be an important determinant of the profile of systemic sclerosis cases identified through screening. Ninety-five percent of our patients with isolated Raynaud’s phenomenon, negative autoimmune serology on more than one visit and normal capillaroscopy score showed no progression to connective tissue disease. Duration of antecedent Raynaud’s phenomenon differs between disease subsets and scleroderma-specific ANA patterns.
Raynaud’s phenomenon and digital ulcers (DUs) are frequent among systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic and predictive value for DU of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers (flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), and ADMA), angiogenic/angiostatic biomarkers (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endoglin, and endostatin), and nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC). We compared our results with a literature review. In a cohort study of 77 SSc patients, we followed two groups of patients: (i) naïve DU patients (39) and (ii) active DU at baseline (38 patients) for 3 years. Telangiectasia (p < 0.001) and diffuse disease subset (p = 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with active DU at enrolment. Additionally, NVC late scleroderma pattern (AUC 0.846, 95%CI 0.760-0.932), lower values of FMD (AUC 0.754, 95%CI 0.643-0.864), increased serum levels of ET-1 (AUC 0.758, 95%CI 0.649-0.866), ADMA (AUC 0.634, 95%CI 0.511-0.757), and endoglin as well as low VEGF serum levels (AUC 0.705, 95%CI 0.579-0.830) were significantly associated to new DU events in the 3-year follow-up. Cox regression analysis showed that FMD > 9.41 % (HR 0.37, 95%CI 0.14-0.99); ET-1 >11.85 pmol/L (HR 3.81, 95%CI 1.41-10.26) and late NVC pattern (HR 2.29, 95%CI 0.97-5.38) were independent predictors of DU recurrence. When estimating the probability of occurrence of first DU in naïve DU patients, only late NVC pattern (HR 12.66, 95%CI 2.06-77.89) was an independent predictor factor. In conclusion, late scleroderma patterns in NVC are the best independent predictors of SSc patients who are at risk of developing DU. Endothelial dysfunction assessed by FMD and ET-1 was also found to be an independent predictor of DU recurrence in a 3-year follow-up.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is common but often comes to medical attention only after many years. This review updates the understanding of the pathogenesis, the approach to management, and current approaches to drug therapy.
To report the predictive value of nail-fold capillaroscopy (NFC) patterns of vasculopathy for systemic sclerosis (Scleroderma; SSc) in an unselected cohort of patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP).
Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) is a well defined clinical syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of digital vasospasm triggered by exposure to physical/chemical or emotional stress. RP has been classified as primary or secondary, depending on whether it occurs as an isolated condition (pRP) or is associated to an underlying disease, mainly a connective tissue disease (CTD-RP). In both cases, it manifests with unique “triple” (pallor, cyanosis and erythema), or “double” color changes. pRP is usually a benign condition, while sRP can evolve and be complicated by acral digital ulcers and gangrene, which may require surgical treatment. The pathogenesis of RP has not yet been entirely clarified, nor it is known whether autoantibodies have a role in RP. Even so, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology have highlighted novel potential therapeutic targets. Aim of this review is to discuss the etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, recently disclosed pathogenic mechanisms underlying RP and their correlation with the available therapeutic options, focusing primarily on pRP and CTD-RP.
To systematically review the literature with regard to the prevalence, incidence, risk factors and associations of primary Raynaud’s phenomenon (PRP).
- Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
- Published 6 days ago
Raynaud’s disease is a disorder that is characterized by attacks of pain, cyanosis, redness, and numbness in the upper extremities caused by vasospasm of digital arteries due to cold or emotional stress. We aimed at demonstrating our experiences with endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) in the treatment of Raynaud’s disease.
The objective of the study is to determine the importance of the mode of onset as prognostic factor in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Data were collected from the Spanish Scleroderma Registry (RESCLE), a nationwide retrospective multicenter database created in 2006. As first symptom, we included Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP), cutaneous sclerosis, arthralgia/arthritis, puffy hands, interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and digestive hypomotility. A total of 1625 patients were recruited. One thousand three hundred forty-two patients (83%) presented with RP as first symptom and 283 patients (17%) did not. Survival from first symptom in those patients with RP mode of onset was higher at any time than those with onset as non-Raynaud’s phenomenon: 97 vs. 90% at 5 years, 93 vs. 82% at 10 years, 83 vs. 62% at 20 years, and 71 vs. 50% at 30 years (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, factors related to mortality were older age at onset, male gender, dcSSc subset, ILD, PAH, scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), heart involvement, and the mode of onset with non-Raynaud's phenomenon, especially in the form of puffy hands or pulmonary involvement. The mode of onset should be considered an independent prognostic factor in systemic sclerosis and, in particular, patients who initially present with non-Raynaud's phenomenon may be considered of poor prognosis.
We recently identified the efficacy and safety of a botulinum toxin (BTX)-A/B in Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) and digital ulcers (DU) in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Detailed assessments of peripheral vascular disorder using angiography and dermoscopic images of nail fold capillaries have not been performed previously. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BTX-B on SSc-associated peripheral vascular disorder. Two SSc patients who suffered with RP and DU were treated with a BTX-B injection, and thereafter the symptoms of RP were improved and DU healed in both patients. Furthermore, angiography showed an increased blood flow to the palm and fingers, and dermoscopic images of nail fold capillary changes showed improvement. These results suggest that a BTX-B injection may increase peripheral blood flow and improve RP and DU in SSc patients.