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Concept: Ramesses II


Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated. The following multidisciplinary investigation is the first ever performed on those remains. The results (radiocarbon dating, anthropology, paleopathology, genetics, chemistry and Egyptology) all strongly speak in favour of an identification of the remains as Nefertari’s, although different explanations-albeit less likely-are considered and discussed. The legs probably belong to a lady, a fully adult individual, of about 40 years of age. The materials used for embalming are consistent with Ramesside mummification traditions and indeed all objects within the tomb robustly support the burial as of Queen Nefertari.

Concepts: Ancient Egypt, Egypt, Pharaoh, British Museum, Ramesses II, New Kingdom, Nefertari, Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt


Realist evaluation is an increasingly popular methodology in health services research. For realist evaluations (RE) this project aims to: develop quality and reporting standards and training materials; build capacity for undertaking and critically evaluating them; produce resources and training materials for lay participants, and those seeking to involve them.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Health, Evaluation, Ramesses II


An increasing number of realist evaluations are being conducted from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives and with diverse, fit-for-purpose methods. This commentary discusses the recent BMC Medicine publication of RAMESES II reporting guidelines for realist evaluations. Knowledge users such as program implementers and decision-makers will benefit from the increased transparency of reporting and interpretation in light of the totality of evidence encouraged by this guidance. It is hoped that these reporting guidelines will eventually lead to improved knowledge synthesis and contribute to the cumulative science regarding realist evaluation.Please see related article:

Concepts: Better, Improve, Ramesses II


A palynological study of samples collected from the Tell el-Daba'a (Avaris) archaeological site, the capital of the Hyksos located in the Northeastern Nile Delta, Egypt, was conducted. A range of samples were analyzed for pollen content: mudbricks from tomb walls dating from the Middle (cal. 2124-1778 BC) and New Kingdom ages (cal. 1550-1750 BC), kitchen remains dating from the Middle Kingdom, kitchen middens from the 19th Dynasty (cal. 1750-1058 BC), and tomb offering jars from the Late Period (cal.1000-600 BC). Floristic composition of modern vegetation analysis at different habitats revealed four community types and nine associated types, providing an indicator of high soil salinity and moisture content. Cereal and Achillea-type pollen were common in the mudbrick samples, indicating the probable use of these plants as temper during mudbrick manufacturing in the Middle and New Kingdoms. The kitchen samples were dominated by cereals, broad bean, celery, and other weed pollen types, indicating the importance of cereals, legumes, and celery as strategic crops for food or medicines during the Middle Kingdom period. Weed pollen types were probably associated with crops, with “Cheno-am” pollen type recorded at highest abundance in the tomb filling jar, which may indicate the use of these aromatic herbs to repel insects and animals from tombs.

Concepts: Ancient Egypt, Egypt, Archaeology, Palynology, Ramesses II, Hyksos, Avaris, The Exodus


We set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms, and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance (MDR) among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt.

Concepts: Medical statistics, Ramesses II, Naqada, Hyksos