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Concept: Raid


BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation occurrence.

Concepts: Ratio, Hunting, Dog, Gray Wolf, Coyote, Bear, Hunting dog, Raid


Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, - but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control - up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.

Concepts: Statistics, Demography, Population, Arithmetic mean, Hunting, Dog, Coyote, Raid


Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid pesticide widely used in agriculture. Exposure can be assessed through biomonitoring. However, interpretation of results requires a proper knowledge of the toxicokinetics of the exposure biomarkers of interest. This study aimed at characterizing typical urinary time courses of biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in farm workers in Quebec following an exposure episode, distribution of values and variability, and predictors of elevated excretion levels.

Concepts: Agriculture, Insect, Tractor, Insecticide, DDT, Pyrethroid, Industrial agriculture, Raid


Commercial mosquito repellents (MRs) are generally applied as mosquito coils, electric vaporizers (liquid and solid) or aerosol spray, with pyrethroids often being the active ingredients. Four types of MRs were applied individually in a 13-m(2) bedroom to study the occurrence, dissipation and risk of pyrethroids in indoor environments. Total air concentrations (in gas and particle phases) of allethrin, cypermethrin, dimefluthrin and tetramethrin during MR applications were three to six orders of magnitude higher than indoor levels before the applications, and allethrin emitted from a vaporizing mat reached the highest concentration measured during the current study (18,600 ± 4980 ng m(-3)). The fate of airborne pyrethroids was different when the four MRs were applied. Particle-associated allethrin accounted for 95% of its total concentration from the aerosol spray, and was significantly higher than the vaporizing mat (67%), suggesting that the released phase of MRs and size distribution of pyrethroid-carrying particles played important roles in the gas-particle partitioning process. In addition, air exchange through open windows more effectively reduced the levels of indoor pyrethroids than ventilation using an air conditioner. The inhalation risk quotients (RQ) for allethrin derived from application of the vaporizing mat ranged from 1.04 ± 0.40 to 1.98 ± 0.75 for different age-subgroups of the population, suggesting potential exposure risk. Special attention should be given concerning indoor exposure of pyrethroids to these vulnerable groups.

Concepts: Concentration, HVAC, Insecticide, Pyrethroid, Phase diagram, Insect repellent, Pyrethroids, Raid