SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Radiography

515

 To report radiological findings observed in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the first cases of congenital infection and microcephaly presumably associated with the Zika virus in the current Brazilian epidemic.

Concepts: Case series, Virtopsy, Brain, Radiography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, Medical imaging

177

Imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray computed tomography are established methods in daily clinical diagnosis of human brain. Clinical equipment does not provide sufficient spatial resolution to obtain morphological information on the cellular level, essential for applying minimally or non-invasive surgical interventions. Therefore, generic data with lateral sub-micrometer resolution have been generated from histological slices post mortem. Sub-cellular spatial resolution, lost in the third dimension as a result of sectioning, is obtained using magnetic resonance microscopy and micro computed tomography. We demonstrate that for human cerebellum grating-based X-ray phase tomography shows complementary contrast to magnetic resonance microscopy and histology. In this study, the contrast-to-noise values of magnetic resonance microscopy and phase tomography were comparable whereas the spatial resolution in phase tomography is an order of magnitude better. The registered data with their complementary information permit the distinct segmentation of tissues within the human cerebellum.

Concepts: Medicine, Cerebellum, Radiology, Virtopsy, Brain, Radiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Medical imaging

172

Image-guided endovascular interventions have gained increasing popularity in clinical practice, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as an attractive alternative to X-ray fluoroscopy for guiding such interventions. Steering catheters by remote control under MRI guidance offers unique challenges and opportunities.

Concepts: Artificial pacemaker, Angiography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Radiography, X-ray, Radiology, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging

168

We introduce the concept, benefits, and general architecture for acquiring, storing, and displaying digital photographs along with medical imaging examinations. We also discuss a specific implementation built around an Android-based system for simultaneously acquiring digital photographs along with portable radiographs. By an innovative application of radiofrequency identification technology to radiographic cassettes, the system is able to maintain a tight relationship between these photographs and the radiographs within the picture archiving and communications system (PACS) environment. We provide a cost analysis demonstrating the economic feasibility of this technology. Since our architecture naturally integrates with patient identification methods, we also address patient privacy issues.

Concepts: Fluoroscopy, Projectional radiography, Engineering, Radiography, X-ray, Medical imaging

163

Discrimination between simple and perforated appendicitis in patients with suspected appendicitis may help to determine the therapy, timing of surgery and risk of complications. The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in distinguishing between simple and perforated appendicitis, and to compare MRI against ultrasound imaging with selected additional (conditional) use of computed tomography (CT).

Concepts: Medical ultrasonography, Virtopsy, Radiography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Ultrasound, Radiology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Medical imaging

150

In current clinical practice, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are typically inserted using external anatomical measurements and a confirmatory chest X-ray, or using fluoroscopy. The Sherlock 3CG(®) Tip Confirmation System (TCS) allows magnetic tracking of the PICC tip during insertion and confirmation of the final location using ECG, meaning that most patients will not require a chest X-ray or fluoroscopy. The Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was evaluated in 2014 by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as part of the Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme. The company (C.R. Bard Ltd) identified four abstracts, one paper pending publication and questionnaire data from NHS users of the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS. None of the evidence included a comparator arm. Placement accuracy of PICCs using the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS where a chest X-ray was also used ranged from 79.5 to 100 %. The company reported that 9 out of 16 NHS centres that used the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS were no longer using chest X-rays to routinely confirm PICC tip location. The evidence did not report the need for catheter repositioning, re-insertion, staff time savings, treatment delays, length of stay, quality of life outcomes or complications. The company’s model found that the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was cost saving by GBP25.67 per patient compared to blind bedside PICC insertion. The External Assessment Centre (EAC) adapted the company’s model to test alternative assumptions for nurse time, theatre cost, malposition rate and reinsertion method, and found that the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was cost incurring by GBP9.37 per patient compared to blind bedside PICC insertion. The use of the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS in the UK NHS compared to blind PICC insertion using a confirmatory chest X-ray appears to hover around being cost neutral. Staff time and accuracy were key drivers in the model: evidence for these is sparse and the reality will vary in different situations. If evidence became available for outcomes after the initial insertion, such as replacement, complications and adverse events, the cost implications may change. The direction of this potential change is not known. NICE published guidance MTG24 in March 2015 recommending that the case for adoption of Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was supported by the evidence.

Concepts: Catheter, Radiology, Medical imaging, Fluoroscopy, Radiography, X-ray, Angiography, Peripherally inserted central catheter

150

Current guidelines for follow-up of adrenal incidentalomas are extensive and hampered by lack of follow-up studies. We tested the hypothesis that small lipid-rich adrenal incidentalomas, initially characterized by tumor size < 40 mm and < 10 Hounsfield Units (HU) on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) may not demon-strate excessive growth / hormonal hypersecretion on follow-up.

Concepts: Radiography, Radiology, Medical imaging, Endocrine gland

147

When using laser guidance for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided needle interventions, planned needle paths are visualized to the operator without the need to switch between entry- and progress-view during needle placement. The current study assesses the effect of laser guidance during CBCT-guided biopsies on fluoroscopy and procedure times.

Concepts: Time, The Current, Radiography, Medical imaging

128

Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) provides essential cross-sectional imaging data in patients with suspected pleural malignancy (PM). The performance of CT in routine practice may be lower than in previously reported research. We assessed this relative to ‘real-life’ factors including use of early arterial-phase contrast enhancement (by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA)) and non-specialist radiology reporting.

Concepts: The Colbert Report, Report, Medical terms, Radiology, CT pulmonary angiogram, Radiography, Medical imaging

40

The study objective was to determine whether intravenous contrast administration for computed tomography (CT) is independently associated with increased risk for acute kidney injury and adverse clinical outcomes.

Concepts: Tomographic reconstruction, Radiocontrast, Contrast, Acute kidney injury, Contrast medium, Management, Radiography, Medical imaging