SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Radiation

188

Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection. Using the mouse Harderian gland tumor experiment, the only extensive data-set for dose response modelling with a variety of particle types (>4), for the first-time a particle track structure model of tumor prevalence is used to investigate the effects of NTEs in predictions of chronic GCR exposure risk. The NTE model led to a predicted risk 2-fold higher compared to a targeted effects model. The scarcity of data with animal models for tissues that dominate human radiation cancer risk, including lung, colon, breast, liver, and stomach, suggest that studies of NTEs in other tissues are urgently needed prior to long-term space missions outside the protection of the Earth’s geomagnetic sphere.

Concepts: Electron, Cancer, Ionizing radiation, Radioactive decay, Neutron, Neutron radiation, Mouse, Radiation

51

Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Energy, Obesity, Muscle, Adipose tissue, Body fat percentage, Radiation

38

This work is part of a broader research that focuses on ocular health. Three outlines are the basis of the pyramid that comprehend the research as a whole: authors' previous work, which has provided the public to self-check their own sunglasses regarding the ultraviolet protection compatible to their category; Brazilian national survey in order to improve nationalization of sunglasses standards; and studies conducted on revisiting requirements of worldwide sunglasses standards, in which this work is inserted. It is still controversial on the literature the ultraviolet (UV) radiation effects on the ocular media, but the World Health Organization has established safe limits on the exposure of eyes to UV radiation based on the studies reported in literature. Sunglasses play an important role in providing safety, and their lenses should provide adequate UV filters. Regarding UV protection for ocular media, the resistance-to-irradiance test for sunglasses under many national standards requires irradiating lenses for 50 uninterrupted hours with a 450 W solar simulator. This artificial aging test may provide a corresponding evaluation of exposure to the sun.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Sun, Electromagnetic spectrum, Sunlight, Psoriasis, Radiation, Sunscreen, Sun tanning

34

Wearable devices to self-monitor physical activity have become popular with individuals and healthcare practitioners as a route to the prevention of chronic disease. It is not currently possible to reconcile feedback from these devices with activity recommendations because the guidelines refer to the amount of activity required on top of normal lifestyle activities (e.g., 150min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week over-and-above normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities). The aim of this study was to recalibrate the feedback from self-monitoring. We pooled data from four studies conducted between 2006 and 2014 in patients and volunteers from the community that included both sophisticated measures of physical activity and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (n=305). We determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity that corresponded to FAO/WHO/UNU guidance for a required PAL of 1.75 (Total Energy Expenditure/Basal Metabolic Rate). Our results show that, at the UK median PAL, total moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity will be around 735min per week (~11% of waking time). We estimate that a 4% increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity will achieve standardised guidance from FAO/WHO/UNU and will require ~1000min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity per week. This study demonstrates that feedback from sophisticated wearable devices is incompatible with current physical activity recommendations. Without adjustment, people will erroneously form the view that they are exceeding recommendations by several fold. A more appropriate target from self-monitoring that accounts for normal moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle activities is ~1000min per week, which represents ~15% of waking time.

Concepts: Medicine, Metabolism, Energy, Light, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Radiation, Energeia

27

The importance of the complement system in clinical medicine has become evident during the last decades and complement therapeutics has now reached the clinic. Thus, there is an increased interest in and need for assays to evaluate complement activity and dysfunction. Pathologically increased complement activation can indirectly be evaluated by quantification of complement components, but in order to exactly measure such activation, assays for quantification of products formed during activation are required. Progress in this field is hampered by lack of standardization. Therefore, members of the International Complement Standardization Committee, a joint initiative of the International Complement Society and the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), prepared a defined standard for application in assays for complement activation products. We here report on the production and properties of this International Complement Standard #2 (ICS#2). ICS#2 was made from a pool of sera from healthy blood donors (ICS#1) that was activated with a combination of heat-aggregated IgG and zymosan, and subsequently stabilized by adding EDTA and nafamostat mesylate. The protocol was optimized to make the standard applicable in the following activation product assays: C1rs-C1-inhibitor complexes, C4a, C4bc, C4d, Bb, C3bBbP, C3a, C3bc, C3dg, C5a and the soluble terminal C5b-9 complement complex (SC5b-9, TCC). ICS#2 was defined as containing 1000 complement activation units (CAU)/mL for all activation products measured. All activation products were stable after 10 times thawing and freezing and most of the activation products were stable during storage at 4°C for up to 21 days. ICS#2 was produced large-scale and is considered a valuable tool for standardization, calibration and reference control for complement activation assays, providing the necessary prerequisite for quality assessments between complement laboratories.

Concepts: Immune system, Measurement, Complement system, Standardization, Standard, Radiation, Complement component 4, Activation product

27

This paper presents a method to identify the surface areas of a vibrating structure that contribute to the radiated sound power. The surface contributions of the structure are based on the acoustic radiation modes and are computed for all boundaries of the acoustic domain. The surface contributions are compared to the acoustic intensity, which is a common measure for near-field acoustic energy. Sound intensity usually has positive and negative values that correspond to energy sources and sinks on the surface of the radiating structure. Sound from source and sink areas partially cancel each other and only a fraction of the near-field acoustic energy reaches the far-field. In contrast to the sound intensity, the surface contributions are always positive and no cancelation effects exist. The technique presented here provides a method to localize the relevant radiating surface areas on a vibrating structure. To illustrate the method, the radiated sound power from a baffled square plate is presented.

Concepts: Acoustics, Sound, Radiation, Sound intensity, Intensity, Sound power, Particle displacement, Sound intensity level

27

Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol which can be found in many plants and fruits, such as peanuts, mulberries, blueberries and, above all, in grapes and red wine. Its synthesis is regulated by the presence of stressful factors, such as fungal contamination and ultra-violet radiation. In plants, it plays a role as a phytoalexin, showing a capacity to inhibit the development of certain infections. Plant extracts which contain resveratrol have been employed by traditional medicine for more than 2000 years. Resveratrol was first isolated, and its properties were initially studied with scientific methods, thirty years ago. Its in vitro properties have been extensively studied and demonstrated. It is worth highlighting its activity as an anti-cancer agent, platelet anti-aggregation agent, anti-inflammatory, antiallergenic, etc. The activity of its in vivo properties are not so clear. There are many studies that report benefits on the cardiovascular system, illnesses such as diabetes, and in longevity. However, other authors did not find any agreement between in vitro and in vivo studies. This discrepancy is due to the bioavailability of resveratrol. After an oral dose, it has been demonstrated that the absorption is very high, but the metabolic pathways leave just a little free resveratrol in blood, therefore the bioavailability in the target tissues is very low and the concentrations used in in vitro studies are not found in these tissues. Thus, resveratrol is a very active molecule for maintaining health, but due to the low bioavailability not all the in vitro effects can be translated to in vivo. This opens a new potential approach, seeking derivatives of resveratrol that can be measured in the desired tissues.

Concepts: Blood, Plant, In vivo, In vitro, Fruit, Resveratrol, Wine, Radiation

26

Passive radiative cooling draws heat from surfaces and radiates it into space as infrared radiation to which the atmosphere is transparent. However, the energy density mismatch between solar irradiance and the low infrared radiation flux from a near-ambient-temperature surface require materials that strongly emit thermal energy and barely absorb sunlight. We embedded resonant polar dielectric microspheres randomly in a polymeric matrix, resulting in a metamaterial that is fully transparent to the solar spectrum while having an infrared emissivity greater than 0.93 across the atmospheric window. When backed with silver coating, the metamaterial shows a noon-time radiative cooling power of 93 W/m(2) under direct sunshine. More critically, we demonstrated high-throughput, economical roll-to-roll manufacturing of the metamaterial, vital for promoting radiative cooling as a viable energy technology.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Energy, Fundamental physics concepts, Sun, Sunlight, Atmosphere, Radiation, Black body

26

Cross sections for radiative neutron capture have been determined for (94)Zr and (96)Zr using the activation technique with samples of naturally occurring Zr metal. The sensitivity to the correction for epithermal neutrons in the determination of small thermal cross sections is discussed, particularly in view of the variation in the resonance integral at different sites in the reactor. Gamma-ray spectroscopic studies of the decays of (97)Zr and its daughter (97)Nb have been performed, leading to improved values of the energies and intensities of the emitted γ rays, and correspondingly improved values for the energy levels and β feedings of excited states populated in (97)Nb and (97)Mo.

Concepts: Atom, Neutron, Nuclear fission, Radiation, Neutron capture, S-process, R-process, Nuclear reaction

26

In this work, was evaluated the stability of Bevacizumab (Avastin®) repackaged in individual 1 mL single-use syringes stored at different conditions. Bevacizumab repackaging in single-use syringes results from the off-label use of the drug as an intravitreal agent in the treatment of retinal diseases. Bevacizumab stability was assessed by assaying the anti-VEGF activity using an indirect ELISA method and by a Dynamic Light Scattering study. The thermal stability of the drug was also studied by calorimetric analysis, aimed to evaluate thermodynamic parameters associated to the thermal unfolding process. Furthermore, microbiological and fungal tests on the Bevacizumab syringes were performed. As a result, a significant decrease of the anti-VEGF activity was detected when syringes were exposed to UV light at temperature of 37°C. Under these conditions the Dynamic Light Scattering study showed an increase of the average size of Bevacizumab, probably due to aggregation. In conclusion, Bevacizumab stability, stored under different conditions, was assessed considering three different aspects: anti-VEGF activity, microbial contamination and physico-chemical properties. Bevacizumab is stable, under sterile conditions, for 3 months at 4°C and for 7 days at room temperature, although exposed to indirect light sources, while a brief exposure of the drug to direct UV radiation resulted harmful.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Sun, Thermodynamics, Sunlight, ELISA, Fluorescent lamp, Radiation, Sun tanning