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Concept: Racewalking


Mobile phone texting is a common daily occurrence with a paucity of research examining corresponding gait characteristics. To date, most studies have participants walk in a straight line vs. overcoming barriers and obstacles that occur during regular walking. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of mobile phone texting during periods of cognitive distraction while walking and negotiating barriers synonymous with pedestrian traffic.

Concepts: Mobile phone, Walking, Locomotion, Text messaging, Pedestrian, Walkability, Motorola, Racewalking


We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO), high-fat diet (LCHF) during 3 wk of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: High CHO availability (8.6 1.d(-1) CHO, 2.1 1.d(-1) protein; 1.2 1.d(-1) fat) consumed before/during/after training (HCHO, n = 9): identical macronutrient intake, periodised within/between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (<50 g.d(-1) CHO; 78% energy as fat; 2.1 1.d(-1) protein; LCHF, n = 10). Post-intervention, VO2 peak during race walking increased in all groups (P < 0.001, 90%CI: [2.55 - 5.20%]). LCHF was associated with markedly increased rates of whole-body fat oxidation, attaining peak rates of 1.57 ± 0.32 g.min(-1) during 2 h of walking at ∼80%VO2 peak. However, LCHF also increased the oxygen (O2 ) cost of race walking at velocities relevant to real-life race performance: O2 uptake (expressed as % of new VO2peak ) at a speed approximating 20 km race pace was reduced in HCHO and PCHO (90%CI:[-7.047;-2.55] and [-5.18;-0.86], respectively, but was maintained at pre-intervention levels in LCHF. HCHO and PCHO groups improved times for 10 km race walk: 6.6% (90% CI: [4.1; 9.1%]) and 5.3% [3.4; 7.2%], with no improvement (-1.6% [-8.5; 5.3%] for the LCHF group. In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high-CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in VO2peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part, due to reduced exercise economy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Carbohydrate, Walking, Ketogenic diet, Low-carbohydrate diet, Ketosis, Racewalking


The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Function, Prediction interval, Velocity, Sound, Walking, Music, Racewalking


Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults' outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics) and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over), used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants) and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes. The results show inequalities in perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics in high- versus low-deprivation areas and demonstrate that they may influence disparities in participants' outdoor walking levels. Improvements of perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetic in high-deprivation areas are encouraged.

Concepts: Natural environment, Walking, Road, Global Positioning System, Aesthetics, Pedestrian, Walkability, Racewalking


Exposure to noise in everyday urban life is considered to be an environmental stressor. A specific outcome of reactions to environmental stress is a fast pace of life that also includes a faster pedestrian walking speed. The present study examined the effect of listening to annoying acoustical stimuli (traffic noise) compared with relaxation sounds (forest birdsong) on walking speed in a real outdoor urban environment. The participants (N = 83) walked along an urban route of 1.8 km. They listened to either traffic noise or forest birdsong, or they walked without listening to any acoustical stimuli in the control condition. The results showed that participants listening to traffic noise walked significantly faster on the route than both the participants listening to forest birdsong sounds and the participants in the control condition. Participants who listened to forest birdsong walked slightly slower than those under control conditions; however, this difference was not significant. Analysis of the walk experience showed that participants who listened to forest birdsong during the walk liked the route more than those who listened to traffic sounds. The study demonstrated that exposure to traffic noise led to an immediate increase in walking speed. It was also shown that exposure to noise may influence participants' perception of an environment. The same environment may be more liked in the absence of noise or in the presence of relaxation sounds. The study also documented the positive effect of listening to various kinds of relaxation sounds while walking in an outdoor environment with traffic noise.

Concepts: Transport, Sound, Walking, Road, Locomotion, Pedestrian, Walkability, Racewalking


RaceRunning enables athletes with limited or no walking ability to propel themselves independently using a three-wheeled running bike that has a saddle and a chest plate for support but no pedals. For RaceRunning to be included as a Para athletics event, an evidence-based classification system is required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between a range of impairment measures and RaceRunning performance.

Concepts: Racewalking


Persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) face ongoing struggles with walking, including reduced speed and increased reliance on assistive devices (ADs). The forces underlying body weight support and gait, as measured by ground reaction forces (GRFs), are likely altered following iSCI due to weakness and AD dependence but have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine GRF production during overground walking after iSCI, as greater insight into GRF constraints is important for refining therapeutic interventions. Due to reduced and discoordinated motor output after iSCI, we hypothesized that persons with iSCI would exert smaller GRFs and altered GRF modifications to increased cadence compared to able-bodied (AB) persons, especially when using an AD. Fifteen persons with chronic iSCI, stratified into no AD (n=7) and AD (n=8) groups, walked across an instrumented walkway at self-selected and fast (115% self-selected) cadences. Fifteen age-matched AB controls walked at their own cadences and iSCI-matched conditions (cadence and AD). Results showed fore-aft GRFs are reduced in persons with iSCI as compared to AB controls, with reductions greatest in individuals dependent on an AD. When controlling for cadence and AD, propulsive forces were still lower in persons with iSCI. Compared to AB controls, persons with iSCI demonstrated altered GRF modifications to increased cadence. Persons with iSCI exhibit different stance-phase forces compared to AB controls, which are further impacted by AD use and slower walking speed. Minimizing AD use and/or providing propulsive biofeedback during walking could enhance GRF production following iSCI.

Concepts: Hypertension, Force, Running, Walking, Reaction, Ground reaction force, Dependency, Racewalking


Decathlon consists of various track and field running, jumping and throwing events. This results in high physical demands and poor postural control may predispose athletes at a higher risk for injury. The purpose of this study was to measure and to show a relationship of different dynamic postural control tests in healthy professional decathlon athletes.

Concepts: Running, Heptathlon, Racewalking, Running in Ancient Greece, Pentathlon, Athletics


Senior public heath nurse Jan Sinclair and her fitness team at Stepping Hill Hospital in Stockport walked, jogged and ran more than 1,000 miles at Easter. It took them nine days to cover a distance equivalent to a return trip from Glasgow to Plymouth, but no one had a day off work.

Concepts: Running, Road, Racewalking, Hiking, Long-distance trail


The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to investigate effects of cadence and sensitivity settings for the StepWatch (SW3) on step count accuracy over a wide range of ambulatory speeds, and 2) to compare the preprogrammed “quick start” settings to modified settings during intermittent lifestyle activities.

Concepts: Personal life, Running, Walking, Racewalking, Cadence