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Concept: Quenching


Phenylcarbamate derivatives of amylose and β-cyclodextrin show excellent chiral recognition when used as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography. To open up new possibilities of carbohydrate-based materials, we developed chiral fluorescent sensors based on amylose and β-cyclodextrin (Am-1b and CyD-1b, respectively) by attaching fluorescent π-conjugated units on their side chains. Their recognition abilities toward chiral analytes containing a nitrophenyl unit were evaluated by measuring the enantioselective fluorescence quenching behavior. Both sensors showed the same degree of enantioselective fluorescence response for various aromatic nitro compounds. However, in some cases, their enantioselectivities were different depending on the analytes. The difference in the chiral recognition abilities between Am-1b and CyD-1b seems to be based on the structural difference of their inherent backbones, that is, the one-handed helical structure and cyclic structure, respectively. The study on the resolution ability of the Am-1b-based CSP revealed that the terthienyl-based pendant of Am-1b provides not only a fluorescent functionality but also a different chiral recognition site from that of amylose tris(phenylcarbamate).

Concepts: Fluorescence, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Units of measurement, Nitro compound, Quenching, Reduction of nitro compounds, Pendant


Fluorescent PET (Photoinduced Electron Transfer) has been of particular growth in recent times. A novel PET based fluorescent sensor using unmodified CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been developed for the trace determination of Nimesulide (NIM). The sensor is based on the selective fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by NIM in presence of other NSAIDs and is found that intensity of quenching is linearly related to NIM concentration in the range 8.2 × 10(-7) - 4.01 × 10(-5) M. The mechanism of interaction is discussed. Finally, the potential application of the proposed method for the trace determination of NIM in pharmaceutical formulation is demonstrated.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Electron, Spectroscopy, Pharmacology, Ultraviolet, Light, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Quenching


Transferrin (Tf) functionalized gold nanoclusters (Tf-AuNCs)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite (Tf-AuNCs/GO) was fabricated as a turn-on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe for bioimaging cancer cells and small animals. A one-step approach was developed to prepare Tf-AuNCs via a biomineralization process with Tf as template. Tf acted not only as stabilizer and reducer, but also as a functional ligand for targeting transferrin receptor (TfR). The prepared Tf-AuNCs gave intense NIR fluorescence that can avoid interference from biological media such as tissue auto-fluorescence and scattering light. Assembling of Tf-AuNCs and GO gave Tf-AuNCs/GO nanocomposite, a turn-on NIR fluorescent probe with negligible background fluorescence due to super fluorescence quenching property of GO. The NIR fluorescence of the Tf-AuNCs/GO nanocomposite was effectively restored in the presence of TfR due to the specific interaction between Tf and TfR, and the competition of TfR with the GO for the Tf in Tf-AuNCs/GO composite. The developed turn-on NIR fluorescence probe offered excellent water solubility, stability and biocompatibility, exhibited high specificity to TfR with negligible cytotoxicity. The probe was successfully applied for turn-on fluorescent bioimaging of cancer cells and small animals.

Concepts: Protein, Fluorescence, Spectroscopy, Oxygen, Ultraviolet, Histology, Quenching, Transferrin receptor


In this study, we report here a general protocol for making core-shell magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2-MPS/MIPs (MPS = 3-(methacryloxyl) propyl trimethoxysilane, MIPs = molecularly imprinted polymers, Fe3O4/SiO2-MPS as core, MIPs as shell) via a surface molecular imprinting technique for optical detection of trace λ-cyhalothrin. The fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer shell was first prepared by copolymerization of acrylamide with a small quantity of allyl fluorescein in the presence of λ-cyhalothrin to form recognition sites without doping. The magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2-MPS/MIPs exhibited paramagnetism, high fluorescence intensity, and highly selective recognition. Using fluorescence quenching as a detecting tool, Fe3O4/SiO2-MPS/MIPs were successfully applied to selectively and sensitively detect λ-cyhalothrin, and a linear relationship could be obtained covering a wide concentration range of 0-50 nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9962 described by the Stern-Volmer equation. The experimental results of practical detection revealed that magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2-MPS/MIPs as an attractive recognition element was satisfactory for determination of trace λ-cyhalothrin in honey samples. This study, therefore, demonstrated the potential of MIPs for detection of λ-cyhalothrin in food.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Oxygen, Ultraviolet, Light, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Polymer, Quenching, Polymers


l-Tyrosine (Tyr), playing roles as both a reducing reagent and a protecting ligand, has been first employed for synthesizing fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@Tyr) via a novel one-pot strategy. The as-prepared AuNCs@Tyr exhibited a fluorescence emission at 470nm with a quantum yield of approximately 2.5%. Subsequently, the AuNCs@Tyr described here was applied for detections of tyrosinase (TR) activity, which was based on the mechanism of aggregations of AuNCs@Tyr occurring on the active sites of TR since TR was introduced, thus leading to the fluorescence quenching of AuNCs@Tyr. Accordingly, TR was analyzed in a linear range of 0.5-200umL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.08umL(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Significantly, TR has been considered as a critical marker for melanoma owing to its specifically expressing in melanoma cells. Therefore, this analytical method towards investigating TR activity may broaden avenues for meaningfully clinical applications.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Spectroscopy, Signal transduction, Melanoma, Melanin, Signal-to-noise ratio, Melanocyte, Quenching


To develop an MRI/optical multimodal imaging probe based on dye-conjugated iron oxide/silica core/shell nanoparticle, and investigate the distance-dependent fluorescence quenching through careful control of the distance between the iron oxide core and fluorescent dyes.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Oxygen, Ultraviolet, Luminescence, Dyes, Dark quencher, Quenching, Mordant


Herein, for the detection of highly explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) instantly and on-site, a fluorescence ratiometric probe using a dual-emission nanohybrid has been developed. The nanohybrid comprises blue-colored fluorescent graphene oxide (FGO) being conjugated with red-emitting manganese-doped ZnS nanocrystals (ZnS:Mn NCs), the latter being functionalized with hexamethylenediamine. The blue fluorescence of FGO is insensitive to TNT and is used as an internal reference, whereas the red fluorescence of ZnS:Mn NCs can be selectively quenched by TNT through electron transfer, resulting in a unique red-purple-blue color response as the amount of TNT is increased. Thus, the probe could be used for the quantitative measurement of TNT based on the fluorescence ratiometric method. We demonstrated that the nanohybrid probe exhibited high visual detection sensitivity and reliability in comparison with single-color fluorescence quenching probes. A fluorescence test paper was prepared using the nanohybrid probe and was demonstrated to detect TNT residues directly on various surfaces including rubber, a person’s fingers and manila envelopes with a visual detection limit as low as 5.68 ng mm(-2), showing its promising application for security screening.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Electron, Ultraviolet, Measurement, Type I and type II errors, Explosive material, Quenching, Trinitrotoluene


Competitive dye displacement titration has previously been used to characterize chitosan-DNA interactions using ethidium bromide. In this work, we aim to develop a fast and reliable method using SYBR Gold as a fluorescent probe to evaluate the binding affinity between ssRNA and chitosan. The interaction of chitosan with ssRNA was investigated as a function of temperature, molecular weight and degree of acetylation of chitosan, using competitive dye displacement titrations with fluorescence quenching. Affinity constants are reported, showing the high sensitivity of the interaction to the degree of acetylation of chitosan and barely dependent on the molecular weight. We propose that the mechanism of SYBR Gold fluorescence quenching is governed by both static and dynamic quenching.

Concepts: DNA, Fluorescence, Electron, Molecular biology, Ethidium bromide, Atomic mass unit, Agarose gel electrophoresis, Quenching


The first fluorescent sensor (GHB Orange) for date rape drug GHB was developed. It exhibits the fluorescence quenching property for GHB and allows its detection in various drinks. The interaction mechanism was elucidated as intramolecular charge transfer induced by a hydrogen bond. This discovery will help in solving the drug facilitated sexual assault problems.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Electron, Oxygen, Sexual intercourse, Hydrogen, Rape, Quenching, Date rape drug


In this paper, we report on the results of spectrofluorimetric study of new fluorescent sensor based on [Zn2L2] doped in ethyl cellulose. The sensor optical signal is based on the rapid fluorescence quenching in the presence of acetone vapor. The acetone vapor detection limit in a gas mixture by means of sensor based on [Zn2L2] doped in ethyl cellulose is 1.68 ppb. Being highly sensitive to the acetone acetone presence, instant in response and easy to use, the sensor can find an application for the noninvasive diagnostics of diabetes as well as for the monitoring of the content of acetone acetone in the air at industrial and laboratory facilities. Graphical Abstract.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Spectroscopy, Acetone, Ethanol, Signal processing, Sensor, Image sensor, Quenching