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Concept: Qubit


Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently.

Concepts: Computation, Quantum dot, Mathematics, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Quantum computer, Quantum information science, Qubit, Computer


Practical quantum computers require a large network of highly coherent qubits, interconnected in a design robust against errors. Donor spins in silicon provide state-of-the-art coherence and quantum gate fidelities, in a platform adapted from industrial semiconductor processing. Here we present a scalable design for a silicon quantum processor that does not require precise donor placement and leaves ample space for the routing of interconnects and readout devices. We introduce the flip-flop qubit, a combination of the electron-nuclear spin states of a phosphorus donor that can be controlled by microwave electric fields. Two-qubit gates exploit a second-order electric dipole-dipole interaction, allowing selective coupling beyond the nearest-neighbor, at separations of hundreds of nanometers, while microwave resonators can extend the entanglement to macroscopic distances. We predict gate fidelities within fault-tolerance thresholds using realistic noise models. This design provides a realizable blueprint for scalable spin-based quantum computers in silicon.Quantum computers will require a large network of coherent qubits, connected in a noise-resilient way. Tosi et al. present a design for a quantum processor based on electron-nuclear spins in silicon, with electrical control and coupling schemes that simplify qubit fabrication and operation.

Concepts: Thought experiment, Integrated circuit, Electron, Quantum dot, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Qubit, Quantum information science, Quantum computer


Photonic quantum information requires high-purity, easily accessible, and scalable single-photon sources. Here, we report an electrically driven single-photon source based on colloidal quantum dots. Our solution-processed devices consist of isolated CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots sparsely buried in an insulating layer that is sandwiched between electron-transport and hole-transport layers. The devices generate single photons with near-optimal antibunching at room temperature, i.e., with a second-order temporal correlation function at zero delay (g ((2))(0)) being <0.05 for the best devices without any spectral filtering or background correction. The optimal g ((2))(0) from single-dot electroluminescence breaks the lower g ((2))(0) limit of the corresponding single-dot photoluminescence. Such highly suppressed multi-photon-emission probability is attributed to both novel device design and carrier injection/recombination dynamics. The device structure prevents background electroluminescence while offering efficient single-dot electroluminescence. A quantitative model is developed to illustrate the carrier injection/recombination dynamics of single-dot electroluminescence.

Concepts: The Carrier, Energy, Photon, Condensed matter physics, Standard Model, Qubit, Quantum dot, Quantum mechanics


Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing.

Concepts: Quantum computer, Quantum state, Quantum information, Quantum teleportation, Quantum entanglement, Quantum mechanics, Quantum information science, Qubit


The quantum internet is predicted to be the next-generation information processing platform, promising secure communication and an exponential speed-up in distributed computation. The distribution of single qubits over large distances via quantum teleportation is a key ingredient for realizing such a global platform. By using quantum teleportation, unknown quantum states can be transferred over arbitrary distances to a party whose location is unknown. Since the first experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation of independent external qubits, an internal qubit and squeezed states, researchers have progressively extended the communication distance. Usually this occurs without active feed-forward of the classical Bell-state measurement result, which is an essential ingredient in future applications such as communication between quantum computers. The benchmark for a global quantum internet is quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a free-space link whose attenuation corresponds to the path between a satellite and a ground station. Here we report such an experiment, using active feed-forward in real time. The experiment uses two free-space optical links, quantum and classical, over 143 kilometres between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. To achieve this, we combine advanced techniques involving a frequency-uncorrelated polarization-entangled photon pair source, ultra-low-noise single-photon detectors and entanglement-assisted clock synchronization. The average teleported state fidelity is well beyond the classical limit of two-thirds. Furthermore, we confirm the quality of the quantum teleportation procedure without feed-forward by complete quantum process tomography. Our experiment verifies the maturity and applicability of such technologies in real-world scenarios, in particular for future satellite-based quantum teleportation.

Concepts: Quantum computer, La Palma, Quantum entanglement, Quantum information science, Quantum teleportation, Canary Islands, Quantum mechanics, Qubit


Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as “cat states,” have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger’s famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Qubit, Quantum state, Quantum entanglement, Photon, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics


Topological error correction codes are promising candidates to protect quantum computations from the deteriorating effects of noise. While some codes provide high noise thresholds suitable for robust quantum memories, others allow straightforward gate implementation needed for data processing. To exploit the particular advantages of different topological codes for fault-tolerant quantum computation, it is necessary to be able to switch between them. Here we propose a practical solution, subsystem lattice surgery, which requires only two-body nearest-neighbor interactions in a fixed layout in addition to the indispensable error correction. This method can be used for the fault-tolerant transfer of quantum information between arbitrary topological subsystem codes in two dimensions and beyond. In particular, it can be employed to create a simple interface, a quantum bus, between noise resilient surface code memories and flexible color code processors.

Concepts: Qubit, Quantum information science, Vector space, Manifold, Information theory, Computation, Computer, Quantum computer


Pulsed magnetic resonance allows the quantum state of electronic and nuclear spins to be controlled on the timescale of nanoseconds and microseconds respectively. The time required to flip dilute spins is orders of magnitude shorter than their coherence times, leading to several schemes for quantum information processing with spin qubits. Instead, we investigate ‘hybrid nuclear-electronic’ qubits consisting of near 50:50 superpositions of the electronic and nuclear spin states. Using bismuth-doped silicon, we demonstrate quantum control over these states in 32 ns, which is orders of magnitude faster than previous experiments using pure nuclear states. The coherence times of up to 4 ms are five orders of magnitude longer than the manipulation times, and are limited only by naturally occurring (29)Si nuclear spin impurities. We find a quantitative agreement between our experiments and an analytical theory for the resonance positions, as well as their relative intensities and Rabi oscillation frequencies. These results bring spins in a solid material a step closer to research on ion-trap qubits.

Concepts: Qubit, Quantum information, Electron, Photon, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Spin, Nuclear magnetic resonance


A communication protocol is proposed in which vibron-mediated quantum state transfer takes place in a molecular lattice. We consider two distant molecular groups grafted on each side of the lattice. These groups form two quantum computers where vibrational qubits are implemented and received. The lattice defines the communication channel along which a vibron delocalizes and interacts with a phonon bath. Using quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, vibron-phonon entanglement is taken into account through the effective Hamiltonian concept. A vibron is thus dressed by a virtual phonon cloud whereas a phonon is clothed by virtual vibronic transitions. It is shown that three quasi-degenerate dressed states define the relevant paths followed by a vibron to tunnel between the computers. When the coupling between the computers and the lattice is judiciously chosen, constructive interference takes place between these paths. Phonon-induced decoherence is minimized and a high-fidelity quantum state transfer occurs over a broad temperature range.

Concepts: Energy, Qubit, Quantum entanglement, Photon, Quantum field theory, Quantum decoherence, Schrödinger equation, Quantum mechanics


Spin qubits based on interacting spins in double quantum dots have been demonstrated successfully. Readout of the qubit state involves a conversion of spin to charge information, which is universally achieved by taking advantage of a spin blockade phenomenon resulting from Pauli’s exclusion principle. The archetypal spin blockade transport signature in double quantum dots takes the form of a rectified current. At present, more complex spin qubit circuits including triple quantum dots are being developed. Here we show, both experimentally and theoretically, that in a linear triple quantum dot circuit the spin blockade becomes bipolar with current strongly suppressed in both bias directions and also that a new quantum coherent mechanism becomes relevant. In this mechanism, charge is transferred non-intuitively via coherent states from one end of the linear triple dot circuit to the other, without involving the centre site. Our results have implications for future complex nanospintronic circuits.

Concepts: Quantum state, Spin, Wolfgang Pauli, Quantum computer, Pauli exclusion principle, Qubit, Quantum dot, Electron