SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Quantity

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Reduced muscular strength, as measured by grip strength, has been associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Grip strength is appealing as a simple, quick, and inexpensive means of stratifying an individual’s risk of cardiovascular death. However, the prognostic value of grip strength with respect to the number and range of populations and confounders is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the independent prognostic importance of grip strength measurement in socioculturally and economically diverse countries.

Concepts: Demography, Population, Measurement, Psychometrics, The Independent, Uncertainty, Quantity, Hand strength

28

For the first time compressed sampling (CS) has been applied to heart rate (HR) measurements. The signals can be reconstructed from samples far below the Nyquist rate with negligible small errors, a sampling reduction of 8 has been demonstrated in the paper. As a result, the bitrate of the CS sampler is half when compared to a normal sampler. A lower bitrate leads to a reduction in power consumption for HR measurement devices.

Concepts: Measurement, English-language films, Quantity, Measuring instrument, Aliasing, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, Nyquist rate, Nyquist frequency

28

We present a method that allows for a quantitative measurement of the surface self-diffusion on nanostructures, such as nanoparticles, at the atomic scale using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The diffusion coefficient can be estimated by measuring the fluctuation of the atom column occupation at the surface of Au nanoparticles, which is directly observable in temporal sequences of HRTEM images. Both a Au icosahedron and a truncated Au octahedron are investigated, and their diffusion coefficients are found to be in the same order of magnitude, D = 10(-17) to 10(-16) cm(2)/s. It is to be assumed that the measured surface diffusion is affected by the imaging electron beam. This assumption is supported by the observed instability of a (5 × 1) surface reconstruction on a {100} Au facet.

Concepts: Electron, Quantum mechanics, Measurement, Atom, Diffusion, Quantity, Number sense

28

Interactomes are often measured using affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) or yeast two-hybrid approaches, but these methods do not provide stoichiometric or temporal information. We combine quantitative proteomics and size-exclusion chromatography to map 291 coeluting complexes. This method allows mapping of an interactome to the same depth and accuracy as AP-MS with less work and without overexpression or tagging. The use of triplex labeling enables monitoring of interactome rearrangements.

Concepts: Protein, Bioinformatics, Molecular biology, Measurement, Psychometrics, Quantity, Cartography

27

We evaluated how comparable peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurements of cortical thickness, density, and apparent trabecular structure at the ultradistal tibia were with those measured with high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT). We also examined whether the accuracy of the pQCT-based trabecular and cortical measurements improved with reductions in slice thickness from the standard 2.2mm to 1.1 and 0.6mm. We immersed 15 dry tibia specimens in saline in a sealed cylinder and scanned 22.5mm from the distal tibia plateau using pQCT and HR-pQCT. pQCT underestimated cortical thickness by Stratec (CThStratec) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) by 21.4% and 72.9%, whereas bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) and cortical density (CDen) were overestimated by 265.8% and 13.1%, respectively. Measurements of trabecular volumetric bone mineral density, trabecular area, total area, cortical thickness by custom software were comparable, but for CThStratec, Tb.Sp, BV/TV, and CDen, the differences between imaging devices varied with magnitude of the estimate. We recommend that researchers or clinicians interested in using pQCT to measure apparent trabecular structure or cortical thickness at the epiphyses, or in comparing findings from different devices, be aware of the differences between HR-pQCT and pQCT.

Concepts: Density, Volume, Measurement, Metrology, Integral, Units of measurement, Quantity, Systems of measurement

27

Methemoglobin concentration is an important pathophysio-logical biomarker, reflecting the oxygen-carrying and oxygen-releasing capabilities of hemoglobin (Hb). Raman spectroscopy is used to develop a novel technique for determining the methemoglobin concentration. Raman activity combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis is an attractive method for investigating Hb oxidation, exhibiting several relevant peaks in the range of 1200-1650 cm- 1. Methemoglobin concentration is estimated by measuring the intensity of Raman peaks in the ranges of 1210-1230 cm- 1 and 1340-1380 cm- 1 with 785-nm excitation. The correlation between Raman-based methemoglobin concentration estimations and the methemoglobin concentration measured using spectrophotometry was highly significant. These results suggest the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a new quantitative approach to determine the methemoglobin concentration.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Measurement, Raman spectroscopy, Quantity, Systems of measurement

27

The time dependency of the diffusion coefficient of particles in porous media is an efficient probe of their geometry. The analysis of this quantity, measured, e.g., by nuclear magnetic resonance, can provide rich information pertaining to porosity, pore size distribution, permeability, and surface-to-volume ratio of porous materials. Nevertheless, in numerous if not all practical situations, transport is confined by walls where adsorption and desorption processes may occur. In this article, we derive explicitly the expression of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient between two confining walls in the presence of adsorption and desorption. We show that they strongly modify the time-dependency of the diffusion coefficient, even in this simple geometry. We finally propose several applications, from sorption rates measurements to the use as a reference for numerical implementations for more complex geometries.

Concepts: Measurement, Petroleum, Geometry, Diffusion, Transport phenomena, Porosity, Quantity, Porous medium

26

‘Measurement uncertainty of measured quantity values’ (ISO15189) requires that the laboratory shall determine the measurement uncertainty for procedures used to report measured quantity values on patients' samples. Where we have numeric data measurement uncertainty can be expressed as the standard deviation or as the co-efficient of variation. However, in immunology many of the assays are reported either as semi-quantitative (i.e. an antibody titre) or qualitative (positive or negative) results. In the latter context, measuring uncertainty is considerably more difficult. There are, however, strategies which can allow us to minimise uncertainty. A number of parameters can contribute to making measurements uncertain. These include bias, precision, standard uncertainty (expressed as standard deviation or coefficient of variation), sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and verification. Closely linked to these are traceability and standardisation. In this article we explore the challenges presented to immunology with regard to measurement uncertainty. Many of these challenges apply equally to other disciplines working with qualitative or semi-quantitative data.

Concepts: Measurement, Metrology, Psychometrics, Test method, Uncertainty, Quantity, Systems of measurement, Measurement uncertainty

26

To assess a potential source of technique-associated error, we evaluated the influence of needle electrode depth on decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA) motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative motor unit analysis in the upper trapezius (UT).

Concepts: Scientific method, Measurement, Motor unit, Quantity, Motor unit number estimation

26

Proper interpretation of forensic measurements can be critical to the administration of justice. Breath alcohol testing is commonly relied upon to measure the concentration of alcohol in breath or, indirectly, in blood. The concentration sought constitutes the “quantity intended to be measured,” referred to as the measurand. Although breath tests always probe the same physical quantity, their measurand is dictated by statute and varies between jurisdictions. Thus, identical numerical values obtained from tests in disparate jurisdictions may refer to different quantities and may not indicate the relevant statutory measurand. This can lead to misinterpretation of results, referred to as the “measurand problem.” We first illustrate the concept of the measurand. Thereafter, the measurand problem is illustrated through application of Hlastala’s breath test paradigm and Gullberg’s work on breath test uncertainty. It is shown that where the measurand is not properly accounted for, conclusions based upon breath test evidence are undermined.

Concepts: Measurement, Metrology, Test method, Units of measurement, Uncertainty, Quantity, Physical property, Breathalyzer