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Concept: Purple Mangosteen


This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

Concepts: Honey bee, Bee, Apidae, Pollinators, Apocrita, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen


Applications for antimicrobials derived from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) plant are presently restricted by high production costs. Extraction from cultivation or processing waste streams using a solvent free approach could lessen to permit commercial applications in food processing and preservation.

Concepts: Fruit, Food preservation, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen


Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation.

Concepts: Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen, Xanthone


Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), α-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12μM, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against E. coli and S. aureus, while demonstrated promising action against B. cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against C. albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential towards A. fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472.

Concepts: Bacteria, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen


Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones α-mangostin (15), β-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds.

Concepts: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium, Plasmodium vivax, Artemisinin, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Xanthone


The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including α-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Apoptosis, Chemotherapy, BRCA2, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen


The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), known as the “queen of fruit,” is widely consumed and unique not only because of its outstanding appearance and flavor but also its remarkable and diverse pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of acute mangosteen supplementation on physical fatigue during exercise.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen


Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen’s classification as a “superfruit”. This has led to sales of mangosteen containing beverages in USA alone exceeding $200 million in 2008 despite very limited animal and human studies. This review will (a) critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, (b) update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and © suggest needed areas of inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Nutrition, In vivo, In vitro, Fruit, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen


A new prenylated xanthone, mangostanaxanthone VIII (7) and six known metabolites: gartanin (1), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), rubraxanthone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenylxanthone (4), garcinone C (5), and xanthone I (9-hydroxycalabaxanthone) (6) were separated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the air-dried pericarps of Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae). Their structures have been verified on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis as well as comparison with the literature. The cytotoxic activity of 7 was assessed against MCF7, A549, and HCT116 cell lines using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Compound 7 showed significant cytotoxic potential against MCF7 and A549 cell lines with IC50s 3.01 and 1.96 μM, respectively compared to doxorubicin (0.06 and 0.44 μM, respectively). However, it exhibited moderate activity towards HCT116 cell line.

Concepts: Cell, Cell biology, Cell culture, Cell lines, Viral plaque, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen


Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) has exceptional potential for commercial and pharmaceutical applications due to its delicious fruit and medicinal properties. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of mangosteen seed development is poorly understood. In this study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of four seed developmental stages; eight, ten, twelve and fourteen weeks after anthesis. Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 sequencer was used to generate raw data of approximately 68 Gb in size. From 451,495,326 raw reads, 406,143,756 clean reads were obtained. The raw data were uploaded to SRA database and the BioProject ID is PRJNA395504. These data provide the basis for further exploration and understanding of the molecular mechanism in mangosteen seed development.

Concepts: Knowledge, Fruit, Apple, Raw image format, Garcinia, Purple Mangosteen, Button Mangosteen