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Concept: Pupil


PURPOSE: To investigate the normative data of ocular axial length and its associations in Chinese. METHOD: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 is a cross-sectional study performed in Greater Beijing. The study included 3468 individuals (1963 (56.6%) women) with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50-93 years). A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Axial length was measured by optical low-coherence reflectometry. RESULTS: Axial length measurements were available for 3159 (91.1%) study participants. Mean axial length was 23.25±1.14 mm (range: 18.96-30.88 mm). In multivariate analysis, axial length was significantly associated with the systemic parameters of higher age (P<0.001), higher body height (P = 0.003), higher level of education (P<0.001) and urban region of habitation (P<0.001), and with the ocular parameters of thicker central cornea (P = 0.001), higher corneal curvature radius (P<0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P<0.001), thicker lens (P<0.001), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), larger pupil diameter (P = 0.018), and higher best corrected visual acuity (P<0.001). It was additionally and negatively associated with the lens vault (P<0.001). In highly myopic eyes, axial length was significantly associated with lower level of education (P = 0.008), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), and lower best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Mean ocular axial length in the older adult population of Greater Beijing (23.25±1.14 mm) was similar to the value measured in other urban populations and was higher than in a rural Central Indian population. The association between axial length and older age may potentially be associated with a survival artifact. The association between axial length and body height agrees with the general association between anthropomorphic measures and eye globe size. The association with the level of education and urban region of habitation confirms with previous studies. In contrast in highly myopic eyes, axial length was negatively associated with educational level and best corrected visual acuity.

Concepts: Eye, Visual acuity, Cornea, Myopia, Contact lens, Refractive error, Length, Pupil


This paper introduces a model of oculomotor control during the smooth pursuit of occluded visual targets. This model is based upon active inference, in which subjects try to minimise their (proprioceptive) prediction error based upon posterior beliefs about the hidden causes of their (exteroceptive) sensory input. Our model appeals to a single principle - the minimisation of variational free energy - to provide Bayes optimal solutions to the smooth pursuit problem. However, it tries to accommodate the cardinal features of smooth pursuit of partially occluded targets that have been observed empirically in normal subjects and schizophrenia. Specifically, we account for the ability of normal subjects to anticipate periodic target trajectories and emit pre-emptive smooth pursuit eye movements - prior to the emergence of a target from behind an occluder. Furthermore, we show that a single deficit in the postsynaptic gain of prediction error units (encoding the precision of posterior beliefs) can account for several features of smooth pursuit in schizophrenia: namely, a reduction in motor gain and anticipatory eye movements during visual occlusion, a paradoxical improvement in tracking unpredicted deviations from target trajectories and a failure to recognise and exploit regularities in the periodic motion of visual targets. This model will form the basis of subsequent (dynamic causal) models of empirical eye tracking measurements, which we hope to validate, using psychopharmacology and studies of schizophrenia.

Concepts: Scientific method, Economics, Visual system, Saccade, Sensory system, Sense, Pupil, Smooth pursuit


Aims : To derive a reliable estimate of the frequency of pupillary involvement and to study the patterns and course of anisocoria in conjunction with ophthalmoplegia in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective analytical study, standardized enrolment criteria were employed to identify 35 consecutive patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy who were subjected to a comprehensive ocular examination. Standardized methods were used to evaluate pupil size, shape, and reflexes. The degree of anisocoria, if present and the degree of ophthalmoplegia was recorded at each visit. Results: Pupillary involvement was found to be present in 25.7% of the total number of subjects with diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy. The measure of anisocoria was < 2 mm, and pupil was variably reactive at least to some extent in all cases with pupillary involvement. Majority of patients in both the pupil-involved and pupil-spared group showed a regressive pattern of ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmoplegia reversed much earlier and more significantly when compared to anisocoria. Conclusions: Pupillary involvement in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy occurs in about 1/4 th of all cases. Certain characteristics of the pupil help us to differentiate an ischemic insult from an aneurysmal injury to the 3 rd nerve. Ophthalmoplegia resolves much earlier than anisocoria in diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies.

Concepts: Eye, Cranial nerves, Oculomotor nerve, Pupil, Oculomotor nerve palsy, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, Anisocoria, Mydriasis


Acquired nystagmus, a highly symptomatic consequence of damage to the substrates of oculomotor control, often is resistant to pharmacotherapy. Although heterogeneous in its neural cause, its expression is unified at the effector-the eye muscles themselves-where physical damping of the oscillation offers an alternative approach. Because direct surgical fixation would immobilize the globe, action at a distance is required to damp the oscillation at the point of fixation, allowing unhindered gaze shifts at other times. Implementing this idea magnetically, herein we describe the successful implantation of a novel magnetic oculomotor prosthesis in a patient.

Concepts: Eye, Amputation, Harmonic oscillator, Pupil, Simple harmonic motion


During wakefulness, pupil diameter can reflect changes in attention, vigilance, and cortical states. How pupil size relates to cortical activity during sleep, however, remains unknown. Pupillometry during natural sleep is inherently challenging since the eyelids are usually closed. Here, we present a novel head-fixed sleep paradigm in combination with infrared back-illumination pupillometry (iBip) allowing robust tracking of pupil diameter in sleeping mice. We found that pupil size can be used as a reliable indicator of sleep states and that cortical activity becomes tightly coupled to pupil size fluctuations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Pharmacological blocking experiments indicate that the observed pupil size changes during sleep are mediated via the parasympathetic system. We furthermore found that constrictions of the pupil during NREM episodes might play a protective role for stability of sleep depth. These findings reveal a fundamental relationship between cortical activity and pupil size, which has so far been hidden behind closed eyelids.

Concepts: Sleep, Eye, Protection, Parasympathetic nervous system, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Pupil, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, Slow-wave sleep


The pupillary light reflex is a critical component of the neurologic examination, yet whether it is present, depressed, or absent is unknown in patients with significant opioid toxicity. Although opioids produce miosis by activating the pupillary sphincter muscle, these agents may induce significant hypercarbia and hypoxia, causing pupillary constriction to be overcome via sympathetic activation. The presence of either “pinpoint pupils” or sympathetically mediated pupillary dilation might prevent light reflex assessment. This study was designed to determine whether the light reflex remains quantifiable during opioid-induced hypercarbia and hypoxia.

Concepts: Eye, Opioid, Iris, Pupil, Pupillary light reflex, Mydriasis, Miosis, Pupillary reflex


To develop an objective and precise neurophysiologic method from which to identify and characterize the presence and magnitude of relative afferent pupillary defects (RAPD) in patients with MS.

Concepts: Pupil


PURPOSE: To measure the effect of spherical aberration correction by aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on pupil diameter, and to determine the minimum pupil diameter for each aspheric IOL. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eight-six patients (169 eyes) who were implanted with a HOYA AF-1 NY-60 or Tecnis ZCB00 1-piece IOL were enrolled. Ocular, corneal, and internal spherical aberrations were measured at the 1-month postoperative visit using the Wavefront Analyzer KR-1W. Minimum pupil diameter, which is required for each aspheric IOL to be effective, was calculated using a regression equation. RESULTS: The mean value of internal spherical aberration of the Tecnis ZCB00 group (-0.09 ± 0.094 μm) was lower than that of the HOYA NY-60 group (-0.05 ± 0.072 μm) (P = .005). The original negative spherical aberrations of the HOYA NY-60 (-0.18 μm) were measured at a pupil diameter of 5.6 mm, and for the Tecnis ZCB00 (-0.27 μm) at a pupil diameter of 6.1 mm. The aspheric IOL efficiency dropped to 0% when the pupil diameter was 3.47 mm for the Tecnis ZCB00 group and 3.71 mm for the HOYA NY-60 group. CONCLUSIONS: When the pupil diameters of patients are smaller than 3.4 mm for the Tecnis ZCB00 and 3.7 mm for the HOYA NY-60, the spherical aberration correction using these aspheric IOLs seems to be ineffective. Approximately 10% of the eyes showed smaller pupil size than the minimum effective diameter under mesopic conditions.

Concepts: Optics, Arithmetic mean, Lens, Intraocular lens, Pupil, Aspheric lens, Spherical aberration, Schmidt corrector plate


Ophthalmoplegic migraine is a rare disorder characterized by childhood-onset ophthalmoplegia and migraine headaches. The third cranial nerve is commonly involved, while involvement of the sixth and fourth cranial nerves is uncommon. We present the case study of a 15-year-old female teenager whose condition was diagnosed with ophthalmoplegic migraine when she was 9 years old and since then has experienced multiple and recurrent attacks. Since the diagnosis, she has exhibited a persistent right-eye mydriasis, despite resolution of migrainous episodes. Pupillary involvement in ophthalmoplegic migraine is the rule in children, with total recovery in the majority of cases. We will discuss some aspects related to the eventual association between this entity and other comorbidities, such as Adie tonic pupil, emphasizing the fact that the underlying mechanisms of this residual mydriasis are not fully understood.

Concepts: Cranial nerves, Nerve, Oculomotor nerve, Neurological disorders, Pupil, Anisocoria, Mydriasis, Miosis


PURPOSE: To assess the intrasession and intersession precision of ocular, corneal, and internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) measured using an integrated topographer and Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor (Topcon KR-1W) in refractive surgery candidates. SETTING: IOBA-Eye Institute, Valladolid, Spain. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic technology. METHODS: To analyze intrasession repeatability, 1 experienced examiner measured eyes 9 times successively. To study intersession reproducibility, the same clinician obtained measurements from another set of eyes in 2 consecutive sessions 1 week apart. Ocular, corneal, and internal HOAs were obtained. Coma and spherical aberrations, 3rd- and 4th-order aberrations, and total HOAs were calculated for a 6.0 mm pupil diameter. RESULTS: For intrasession repeatability (75 eyes), excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were obtained (ICC >0.87), except for internal primary coma (ICC = 0.75) and 3rd-order (ICC = 0.72) HOAs. Repeatability precision (1.96 × S(w)) values ranged from 0.03 μm (corneal primary spherical) to 0.08 μm (ocular primary coma). For intersession reproducibility (50 eyes), ICCs were good (>0.8) for ocular primary spherical, 3rd-order, and total higher-order aberrations; reproducibility precision values ranged from 0.06 μm (corneal primary spherical) to 0.21 μm (internal 3rd order), with internal HOAs having the lowest precision (≥0.12 μm). No systematic bias was found between examinations on different days. CONCLUSIONS: The intrasession repeatability was high; therefore, the device’s ability to measure HOAs in a reliable way was excellent. Under intersession reproducibility conditions, dependable corneal primary spherical aberrations were provided. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Concepts: Optics, Measurement, Metrology, Psychometrics, Cornea, Pupil, Wavefront, Adaptive optics