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Concept: Puducherry


We aimed to define characteristics of TB patients in Puducherry and two districts of Tamil Nadu, India and calculate the population attributable fractions (PAF) of TB from malnutrition and alcohol.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, India, Malnutrition, Tamil Nadu, Tamil language, States and territories of India, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry


Six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in human urine sampled randomly from three districts (Erode, Thanjavur, and Perambalur) in Tamil Nadu State and a Union Territory (Pondicherry) in India were quantified. We determined gender-wise, age-wise and location-wise distribution of PAEs and measured estrogenic activity of urine by molecular docking. Bis(2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the predominant phthalic acid ester found and had a recovery of 104.5% (ultrasonic extraction at 15 min). Gender-wise (pregnant women: 185 ng/mL, children: 156 ng/mL, female: 151 ng/mL, and male: 138 ng/mL), age-wise (1-20 y: 157 ng/mL, 21-40 y: 156 ng/mL, and >40 y: 146 ng/mL), location-wise (urban: 154 ng/mL, and rural: 151 ng/mL), and region-wise (Erode district: 185 ng/mL, Thanjavur district: 155 ng/mL, Perambalur district: 117 ng/mL, and Pondicherry: 135 ng/mL) differences with total mean of Σ6 PAEs were found. The molecular docking study showed a high negative binding energy of PAEs with microbial receptors. Based on the results we conclude that urine could be used as an ideal biomarker to understand PAEs exposure in humans.

Concepts: Ammonia, Ester, India, Phthalate, Tamil Nadu, Tamil language, Phthalic anhydride, Puducherry


The aim of the present study was to provide first-hand information about the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Tamil Nadu, a southern state in India, and examine if there exists a relationship between cognitive functions and biochemical parameters in these patients.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Cognition, India, Tamil Nadu, Tamil language, Mild cognitive impairment, States and territories of India, Puducherry


The grey slender loris Loris lydekkerianus, one of only two nocturnal primates of India, is found in the southern part of the country. Our understanding of its geographical distribution is largely based on historical records and short surveys, and little is known of its occurrence in southern India today. We sought to establish the relative abundance of this species in 26 districts in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Pondicherry in southern India. We sighted lorises in 19 districts, and their relative abundance ranged from 0.01 to 2.21/km. The south-central districts of Tamil Nadu showed the highest densities of lorises, while the western districts showed the lowest. Based on these results, we recommend increased protection measures for the forest patches of the Eastern Ghats mountains in order to ensure the long-term survival of the grey slender loris.

Concepts: Lorisidae, Loris, Lorises and galagos, India, Tamil Nadu, Tamil language, Western Ghats, Puducherry


Models are designed to provide evidence for strategic program planning by examining the impact of different interventions on projected HIV incidence. We employed the Goals Model to fit the HIV epidemic curves in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states of India where HIV epidemic is considered to have matured and in a declining phase. Input data in the Goals Model consisted of demographic, epidemiological, transmission-related and risk group wise behavioral parameters. The HIV prevalence curves generated in the Goals Model for each risk group in the three states were compared with the epidemic curves generated by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) that the national program is routinely using. In all the three states, the HIV prevalence trends for high-risk populations simulated by the Goals Model matched well with those derived using state-level HIV surveillance data in the EPP. However, trends for the low- and medium-risk populations differed between the two models. This highlights the need to generate more representative and robust data in these sub-populations and consider some structural changes in the modeling equation and parameters in the Goals Model to effectively use it to assess the impact of future strategies of HIV control in various sub-populations in India at the sub-national level.

Concepts: Epidemiology, India, Tamil Nadu, Tamil language, States and territories of India, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Puducherry


Economic and dietary changes in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu have led to compromised oral health status of the adolescent population. Adequate epidemiological data are not available to address the prevention or treatment needs in this region of India. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents of Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, India, Dental caries, Tamil Nadu, South India, States and territories of India, Puducherry


Genotyping studies like spoligotyping are valuable tools in understanding the genetic diversity and epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Though there are reports of spoligotyping of M. tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary specimens from different parts of India, spoligotyping of extra pulmonary tuberculosis isolates are very few. Puducherry has not yet recorded spoligopatterns of M. tuberculosis from either pulmonary or extra pulmonary (EPTB) specimens. The aim of this study is to analyze the spoligotype patterns of EPTB strains circulating in Puducherry and neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India, Tamil Nadu, Tamil language, Robert Koch, Puducherry


Morphological variations were observed in specimens of the sand fly species Sergentomyia bailyi Sinton 1931 collected from Pondicherry Union Territory, India. Examination of morphological characteristics showed differences in the length of sensilla chaeticum on antennal flagellomere 3 (A3) in males and females, in the size and shape of the spermathecae in females, and in the position of accessory spines on the gonostyle of males. In our previous study, DNA barcoding characterization of this sand fly species collected from Pondicherry UT revealed molecular variations within the S. bailyi population. This study confirms the existence of a species complex within S. bailyi population at Pondicherry UT.

Concepts: Biology, Species, Insect, India, DNA barcoding, Fly, Union Territory, Puducherry


To summarize the findings from a Post Introduction Evaluation (PIE) of pentavalent vaccine in Tamil Nadu and Kerala state of India and to understand how the health systems could be prepared for (prior to) introducing a new intervention and how such introduction could affect the health systems (afterwards).

Concepts: India, Tamil Nadu, South India, Tamil language, Western Ghats, States and territories of India, Kerala, Puducherry


A peculiar phenomenon of engaging insurance intermediaries for government funded health insurance schemes for the poor, not usually found globally, is gaining ground in India. Rajiv Aarogyasri Scheme launched in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, is first largest tax funded community health insurance scheme in the country covering more than 20 million poor families. Aarogyasri Health Care Trust (trust), the scheme administrator, transfers funds to hospitals through two routes one, directly and the other through an insurance intermediary. The objective of this paper is to find out if engaging an insurance intermediary has any effect on cost efficiency of the insurance scheme.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Health insurance, Economics, India, States and territories of India, Maharashtra, Puducherry