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Concept: PubMed


Postpartum women are consuming their placentas encapsulated, cooked, and raw for the prevention of postpartum depression (PPD), pain relief, and other health benefits. Placentophagy is supported by health advocates who assert that the placenta retains hormones and nutrients that are beneficial to the mother. A computerized search was conducted using PubMed, Medline Ovid, and PsychINFO between January 1950 and January 2014. Keywords included placentophagy, placentophagia, maternal placentophagia, maternal placentophagy, human placentophagia, and human placentophagy. A total of 49 articles were identified. Empirical studies of human or animal consumption of human placentas were included. Editorial commentaries were excluded. Animal placentophagy studies were chosen based on their relevance to human practice. Ten articles (four human, six animal) were selected for inclusion. A minority of women in developed countries perceive placentophagy to reduce PPD risk and enhance recovery. Experimental animal research in support of pain reduction has not been applied in humans. Studies investigating placenta consumption for facilitating uterine contraction, resumption of normal cyclic estrogen cycle, and milk production are inconclusive. The health benefits and risks of placentophagy require further investigation of the retained contents of raw, cooked, and encapsulated placenta and its effects on the postpartum woman.

Concepts: Childbirth, Human, Placenta, Woman, Postpartum depression, PubMed, Animal rights, Placentophagy


Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children’s academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.

Concepts: Effect, Evidence-based medicine, Cochrane Collaboration, Cochrane Library, Affect, MEDLINE, Bibliographic databases, PubMed


Neurofeedback therapy (NFT) has been used within a number of populations however it has not been applied or thoroughly examined as a form of cognitive rehabilitation within a stroke population. Objectives for this systematic review included: i) identifying how NFT is utilized to treat cognitive deficits following stroke, ii) examining the strength and quality of evidence to support the use of NFT as a form of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) and iii) providing recommendations for future investigations. Searches were conducted using OVID (Medline, Health Star, Embase + Embase Classic) and PubMed databases. Additional searches were completed using the Cochrane Reviews library database, Google Scholar, the University of Toronto online library catalogue, website and select journals. Searches were completed Feb/March 2015 and updated in June/July/Aug 2015. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: i) were specific to a stroke population, ii) delivered CRT via a NFT protocol, iii) included participants who were affected by a cognitive deficit(s) following stroke (i.e. memory loss, loss of executive function, speech impairment etc.). NFT protocols were highly specific and varied within each study. The majority of studies identified improvements in participant cognitive deficits following the initiation of therapy. Reviewers assessed study quality using the Downs and Black Checklist for Measuring Study Quality tool; limited study quality and strength of evidence restricted generalizability of conclusions regarding the use of this therapy to the greater stroke population. Progression in this field requires further inquiry to strengthen methodology quality and study design. Future investigations should aim to standardize NFT protocols in an effort to understand the dose-response relationship between NFT and improvements in functional outcome. Future investigations should also place a large emphasis on long-term participant follow-up.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Cochrane Library, Traumatic brain injury, MEDLINE, Cultural studies, Dose-response relationship, PubMed, Neurofeedback


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to review traditional approaches to habilitation of unilateral hearing losses as well as new research concerning management of unilateral hearing loss. DATA SOURCES: Literature review/systematic review. REVIEW METHODS: A PubMed search was performed for articles pertaining to unilateral hearing loss and academic loss and academic performance. Articles ranged in date from 1986 to 2012. Five resources were reviewed for content to determine the pertinence of the materials to the understanding of the history of diagnosis of unilateral hearing loss, the traditional treatment methods and their advantages and disadvantages, and more recent publications concerning academic outcomes for patients with unilateral hearing loss with and without treatment. RESULTS: Unilateral hearing loss scan be detrimental to the academic success of children. Effects encompass not only auditory effects such as difficulty hearing in noise, but also self esteem and exhaustion. Although assistive devices were traditionally not offered as options, more recent literature suggests that devices such as BAHA, hearing aids, or FM systems may provide aids in the classroom and that early intervention may provide more favorable outcomes. CONCLUSION: Since the 1980s, the approach to management of unilateral hearing losses has evolved. In order to maximize academic potential, treatment options should be discussed and implemented.

Concepts: Hearing impairment, Otology, Performance, Self-esteem, Unilateral hearing loss, Tradition, PubMed, Assistive technology


The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2ยท5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review’s overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Taxonomy, Composite material, Meta-analysis, PubMed, Dental composite, Composite video


The effects of nutrition on exercise metabolism and performance remains an important topic among sports scientists, clinical, and athletic populations. Recently, fasted exercise has garnered interest as a beneficial stimulus which induces superior metabolic adaptations to fed exercise in key peripheral tissues. Conversely, pre-exercise feeding augments exercise performance compared with fasting conditions. Given these seemingly divergent effects on performance and metabolism, an appraisal of the literature is warranted. This review determined the effects of fasting vs. pre-exercise feeding on continuous aerobic and anaerobic or intermittent exercise performance, and post-exercise metabolic adaptations. A search was performed using the MEDLINE and Pubmed search engines. The literature search identified 46 studies meeting the relevant inclusion criteria. The Delphi list was used to assess study quality. A meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed where appropriate. Findings indicated that pre-exercise feeding enhanced prolonged (P = 0.012), but not shorter duration aerobic exercise performance (P = 0.687). Fasted exercise increased post-exercise circulating FFAs (P = 0.023) compared to fed exercise. It is evidenced that pre-exercise feeding blunted signalling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue implicated in regulating components of metabolism, including mitochondrial adaptation and substrate utilisation. This review’s findings support the hypothesis that the fasted and fed conditions can divergently influence exercise metabolism and performance. Pre-exercise feeding bolsters prolonged aerobic performance, while seminal evidence highlights potential beneficial metabolic adaptations that fasted exercise may induce in peripheral tissues. However, further research is required to fully elucidate the acute and chronic physiological adaptations to fasted vs. fed exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Cellular respiration, Muscle, Aerobic exercise, Basal metabolic rate, Adaptation, PubMed


Staff from the National Center for Biotechnology Information in the US describe recent improvements to the PubMed search engine and outline plans for the future, including a new experimental site called PubMed Labs.

Concepts: Future, Search engine optimization, PubMed


To examine whether National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded articles that were archived in PubMed Central (PMC) after the release of the 2008 NIH Public Access Policy show greater scholarly impact than comparable articles not archived in PMC.

Concepts: National Institutes of Health, PubMed, PubMed Central


The importance of respecting patients' preferences when making treatment decisions is increasingly recognized. Efficiently retrieving papers from the scientific literature reporting on the presence and nature of such preferences can help to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to create a search filter for PubMed to help retrieve evidence on patient preferences for treatment outcomes.

Concepts: Patient, Academic publishing, Science, PubMed, Information retrieval, Technical communication, PubMed Central


Two years ago we launched Research Involvement and Engagement (RIE) as an interdisciplinary co-produced journal, focusing on patient and wider involvement and engagement in all stages of health and social care research. In this Editorial we reflect on progress and consider future directions. Now indexed in PubMed Central, RIE’s prime objective is to publish papers that report public involvement in enough depth to generate a sound and robust evidence base, from which others can draw to develop best practice. Our open access publishing enables anyone who wants to read a paper to access it free of charge, a powerful way of making research more open and more democratic, with RIE a key part of this slow but necessary revolution. While we have made progress, there is still a long way to go to embed involvement and engagement as normal within research practice. Publishers and funders have a vital role to play in changing research so the co-production of knowledge becomes the norm. In this Editorial we highlight key areas that we need to develop to strengthen involvement and engagement. We draw strength from knowing we are not alone in this journey. Our Editorial Board, our authors, our reviewers, and you dear readers, are all companions on this journey, making a wide range of contributions that help us move forward, slowly but surely.

Concepts: Academic publishing, Publishing, Open source, PubMed, Open access, Scientific literature, PubMed Central, PubMed Central Canada