SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Psychomotor learning

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Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that typically begins within the first few years of life and leads to progressive impairment of movement and cognition. Several years ago, it was shown that >80% of patients with INAD have mutations in the phospholipase gene, PLA2G6. Interestingly, mutations in PLA2G6 are also causative in two other related neurodegenerative diseases, atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy and Dystonia-parkinsonism. While all three disorders give rise to similar defects in movement and cognition, some defects are unique to a specific disorder. At present, the cellular mechanisms underlying PLA2G6-associated neuropathology are poorly understood and there is no cure or treatment that can delay disease progression. Here, we show that loss of iPLA2-VIA, the Drosophila homolog of PLA2G6, gives rise to age-dependent defects in climbing and spontaneous locomotion. Moreover, using a newly developed assay, we show that iPLA2-VIA mutants also display impairments in fine-tune motor movements, motor coordination and psychomotor learning, which are distinct features of PLA2G6-associated disease in humans. Finally, we show that iPLA2-VIA mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, progressive neurodegeneration and a severely reduced lifespan. Altogether, these data demonstrate that Drosophila iPLA2-VIA mutants provide a useful model to study human PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration.

Concepts: Psychology, Neuroscience, Neurology, Neurodegeneration, Neurodegenerative disorders, Motor control, Psychomotor learning, Neurodegenerative diseases

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Service-learning (SL) is one educational methodology that provides students opportunities to practice and refine affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills in a community-based setting.

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Psychomotor learning, Alternative education

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Structured training courses have shown to improve patient outcomes; however, guidelines are inconsistently applied in up to 50% of all neonatal resuscitations. This is partly due to the fact that psychomotor skills needed for resuscitation decay within 6 months to a year from the completion of a certification course. Currently, there are no recommendations on how often refresher training should occur to prevent skill decay.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Skill, Training, Learning, Psychomotor learning, Course, Skills

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Passive exposure to cannabis smoke may induce effects on behavior and psychomotor skills, and have legal consequences, including the risk of being falsely considered as a cannabis user. This can become a concern, especially in occupational contexts or when driving vehicles. In order to enable a differentiation between a passive and an active exposure to cannabis and to limit the likeliness to be detected positive following passive exposure, this review identified specific biomarkers of passive exposure in urine, blood, oral fluid, hair, and sebum. Out of 958 papers identified on passive exposure to cannabis, 21 were selected. Although positive tests had been observed in all matrices following extremely high passive exposure, some distinctive features were observed in each matrix compared to cannabis active use. More specifically, in everyday life conditions, 11-nor-delta-9-THC-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) urinary level should be detected below the positivity threshold used to confirm active smoking of cannabis, especially after normalization to creatinine level. Measuring delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC-COOH in blood is an appropriate alternative for appraising passive exposure as low and very low concentrations of THC and THC-COOH, respectively, should be measured. In hair, oral fluid (OF) and sweat/sebum emulsion, no THCCOOH should be detected. Its presence in hair argues for regular cannabis consumption and in OF or sweat for recent consumption. The experts should recommend to persons who have to demonstrate abstinence from cannabis to avoid heavily smoky and unventilated environments.

Concepts: Psychology, Measurement, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabis, Cannabis smoking, Cannabidiol, Psychomotor learning

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The objectives of this prospective randomized trial were to assess the impact of Peyton’s four-step approach on the acquisition of complex psychomotor skills and to examine the influence of gender on learning outcomes.

Concepts: Psychology, Randomized controlled trial, Education, Educational psychology, Skill, Learning, History of education, Psychomotor learning

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The restoration of proximal surface cavities, originating from Class II carious lesions, to “normal” anatomical specifications is a fundamental objective for the dental practitioner. Cognitive interpretation of tooth morphology attained from evidence-based resources, together with the necessary psychomotor skills for correct design and completion, are considered essential strategies for restoration success. Also, the visualization of the original tooth structure, if present, should substantially benefit the dentist in the creation of a clinically satisfactory restoration. The purpose of this evidence-based review is to define the cause and effect of decisions based on optimum treatment standards of care for the patient. The concepts of form and function, as related to the oral environment, and the consequences of unsatisfactory dental restorative care will be scrutinized. This article will identify and explain the different challenges and solutions for restoration of dental proximal lesions and provide an overview of past, present, and future procedures.

Concepts: Time, Causality, Future, Dental caries, Past, Dentistry, Psychomotor learning, The Dentist

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Neurodevelopmental disability is common after operations for congenital heart defects. We previously showed that patient and preoperative factors, center, and calendar year of birth explained less than 30% of the variance for the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition. Here we investigate how much additional variance in PDI and MDI is contributed by operative variables and postoperative events.

Concepts: Developmental biology, Heart, Embryology, Down syndrome, Congenital heart defect, Congenital heart disease, Neural development, Psychomotor learning

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The studies on the impact of selenium levels (Se) in different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal Se on child neurodevelopment.

Concepts: Cohort study, Pregnancy, Embryo, Parent, Menstrual cycle, Mother, Selenium, Psychomotor learning

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To evaluate internal and construct validity of an assessment tool for cystoscopic and ureteroscopic cognitive and psychomotor skills at a multi-institutional level.

Concepts: Psychology, Psychometrics, Construct validity, Psychomotor learning

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This paper explored concepts, definitions and theoretical perspectives evaluating clinical competence during nursing education. The questions were: (i) How is clinical competence evaluated? and (ii) What is evaluated? An integrative review of 19 original research articles from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Results showed that evaluation tools were used in 14, observations in 2 and reflecting writing in 3 studies. The students participated in all but one evaluation alone or together with peers, faculty members or preceptors. Three themes were found: (i) professional practice with a caring perspective; (ii) clinical skills and reflective practice; and (iii) cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills both with a nursing perspective. This review shows an emphasis on structured methods with a risk reducing nursing to tasks and skills why combinations with qualitative evaluations are recommended. A holistic view of competence dominated and in designing evaluations, explicit perspectives and operationalized definitions of clinical competence became evident.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Evaluation, Skill, Perspective, Holism, Psychomotor learning