SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Pruritus ani

27

Abstract Background: Pruritus ani (PA) is defined as intense chronic itching affecting perianal skin. Objective: We aimed to determine the efficacy of topical tacrolimus treatment in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients who have PA. Methods: The study included 32 patients with AD who were suffering PA. Patients were randomized into two groups. In total, 16 patients used 0.03% tacrolimus ointment and 16 patients used Vaseline® as placebo. All groups applied topical treatments to their perianal area twice daily for 4 weeks. The treatments were then reversed for 4 weeks after a 2 weeks wash out period. Results: In total, 32 patients with AD who had refractory anal itching were enrolled in the present study. None of the patients had obtained successful results with previous treatments. There was a statistically significant decrease in the recorded EASI, DLQI and itching scores for the tacrolimus group compared to the placebo groupat weeks 4 and 6 of treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Topical tacrolimus treatment was well tolerated and effective in controlling persistent PA in AD patients.

Concepts: Allergy, Symptoms, Tacrolimus, Hemorrhoid, Itch, Anal fissure, Atopic dermatitis, Pruritus ani

1

Itch is a common side-effect of treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. We designed a pilot single-centre study to assess the effects of aprepitant-a neurokinin receptor inhibitor-for management of severe pruritus induced by biological drugs.

Concepts: Immune system, Chemotherapy, Allergy, Itch, Pruritus ani

0

Itching is an intricate, common symptom of dermatologic and systemic diseases, and both TRPV3 and TRPA1 channels have been suggested to function as downstream effector targets. But the relative contributions of TRPV3 and TRPA1 to itch sensation in vivo remain unclear. To dissect the role of TRPA1 or TRPV3 in the cutaneous sensation of itching, we took the advantage of a natural compound carvacrol from oregano, and examined its effect on the induction of scratching behavior in mice. We showed that the intradermal injection of carvacrol (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%, 50 μL) induced scratching in a concentration-dependent manner. But in TRPV3-knockout mice, the scratching induced by carvacrol (1%, 50 μL) was markedly decreased by approximately 64% (from 275 scratching bouts down to 90) within 60 min. Further analysis revealed that TRPV3-knockout caused a reduction of scratching bouts for approximately 40% in the first 20 min (the initial phase), whereas the scratching bouts were reduced by approximately 90% in the last 40 min (the sustained phase). These results were in consistence with those in our whole-cell recordings in HEK-293T cells expressing either TRPA1 or TRPV3: carvacrol exhibited similar potencies in activating either TRPA1 or TRPV3, but carvacrol-activated TRPA1 current showed a rapid desensitization, which was reduced by approximately 90% within 5 min before a complete washout, whereas carvacrol-induced TRPV3 current showed a slow desensitization that caused less than 30% of current reduction in 10 min and left a significant residual TRPV3 current after washout. Our results demonstrate that carvacrol from plant oregano is a skin sensitizer or allergen; TRPV3 is involved in the initial phase and the sustained phase of pruritus, whereas TRPA1 likely contributes to the initial phase.

Concepts: Allergy, Itch, Carvacrol, Pruritus ani

0

Myrtus communis is an important plant in the treatment of many different diseases. The aim of this review was to determine the importance of M. communis essential oil in the treatment of hemorrhoids. For preparing this manuscript, the information was extracted from different resources. The results of clinical studies showed that M. communis essential oil (lotion or ointment) can significantly improve bleeding, permanent pain, pain during defecation, anal irritation, anal itching and anal heaviness in patients with hemorrhoids types I and II. M. communis was also effective in treating patients who did not respond to current chemical treatments (anti-hemorrhoids ointment). Further clinical studies should look into designing a suppository form of M. communis essential oil and compare its effect with the lotion and ointment forms.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effect, Effectiveness, Efficacy, Dietary fiber, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure, Pruritus ani

0

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic or chronically relapsing, eczematous, severely pruritic skin disorder associated with skin barrier dysfunction. The lesional skin of AD exhibits T helper 2 (TH 2)-deviated immune reactions. Interleukin-31 (IL-31), preferentially produced from TH 2 cells, is a potent pruritogenic cytokine, and its systemic and local administration induces scratching behavior in rodents, dogs and monkeys. Recent clinical trials have revealed that administration of an anti-IL-31 receptor antibody significantly alleviates pruritus in patients with AD. In this review, we summarize recent topics related to IL-31 and its receptor with special references to atopic itch. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Asthma, Allergy, All rights reserved, Copyright, Itch, Pruritus ani

0

Pruritus is a common and frustrating symptom in hemodialysis (HD) patients and 5-D itch scale is proposed as a reliable measurement of pruritus. However, information regarding 5-D itch scale categories is currently unavailable. We explored optimal cut-offs 5-D itching scale based on numerical rating scale (NRS) categories in HD patients.

Concepts: Symptoms, Itch, Pruritus ani

0

Chronic pruritus, defined as itch persisting more than 6 weeks, is a debilitating problem that affects one in four elderly adults. Emollients are recommended for the management of pruritus, but evidence of efficacy is scarce.

Concepts: Itch, Pruritus ani, Emollient

0

Lichen planus (LP) skin lesions are often accompanied by itch, but this symptom has not been thoroughly examined in LP. To better characterize itch in LP, 78 patients with LP were investigated. Itch was present in 94.9% of patients and was usually described as the most vexing symptom of LP. The severity of itch according to visual analogue scale score was 6.9 ± 2.8 points. Most patients experienced itching daily, pruritus episodes lasted longer than 1 min, and most often occurred in the evening. Itch was frequently described as burning and, for many patients, it was considered burdensome and annoying. The following factors most often increased the perceived severity of pruritus: sweating, high temperature, stress and hot water, while cold water and cold air often resulted in itch reduction. In conclusion, itch is the major subjective symptom of LP. Effective treatment of pruritus should be one of the main goals of LP therapy.

Concepts: Symptoms, Itch, Pruritus ani

0

Skin conditions may have a strong impact on patients' sexual life, and thus influence personal relationships. Sexual issues are difficult to discuss directly in clinical practice, and a mediated instrument may be useful to capture such information. In this study item 9 of the Dermatology Life Quality Index was used to collect information on sexual impact of several skin conditions in 13 European countries. Among 3,485 patients, 23.1% reported sexual problems. The impairment was particularly high in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa, prurigo, blistering disorders, psoriasis, urticaria, eczema, infections of the skin, or pruritus. Sexual impact was strongly associated with depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. It was generally more frequent in younger patients and was positively correlated with clinical severity and itch. It is important to address the issue of sexual well-being in the evaluation of patients with skin conditions, since it is often linked to anxiety, depression, and even suicidal ideation.

Concepts: Allergy, Symptoms, Skin, Hidradenitis suppurativa, Psoriasis, Suicide, Quality-of-life index, Pruritus ani

0