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Concept: Proton


The diagnosis of functional heartburn is important for management, however it stands on fragile pH monitoring variables, ie, acid exposure time varies from day to day and symptoms are often few or absent. Aim of this study was to investigate consistency of the diagnosis of functional heartburn in subsequent days using prolonged wireless pH monitoring and its impact on patients' outcome.

Concepts: Acid, Asthma, Proton, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophageal pH Monitoring, Heartburn, Hydrogen ion


We have investigated proton acceleration in the forward direction from a near-critical density hydrogen gas jet target irradiated by a high intensity (10(18) W/cm(2)), short-pulse (5 ps) laser with wavelength of 1.054 μm. We observed the signature of the Collisionless Shock Acceleration mechanism, namely quasi-monoenergetic proton beams with small divergence in addition to the more commonly observed electron-sheath driven proton acceleration. The proton energies we obtained were modest (~MeV), but prospects for improvement are offered through further tailoring the gas jet density profile. Also, we observed that this mechanism is very robust in producing those beams and thus can be considered as a future candidate in laser-driven ion sources driven by the upcoming next generation of multi-PW near-infrared lasers.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Light, Hydrogen, Proton, Laser, Atom, Chlorine, Classical mechanics


Recent evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) might be linked with adverse cardiac events, but a causal relationship is unproven.

Concepts: Causality, Proton


Space radiation is a great danger to electronics and astronauts onboard space vessels. The spectral flux of space electrons, protons and ions for example in the radiation belts is inherently broadband, but this is a feature hard to mimic with conventional radiation sources. Using laser-plasma-accelerators, we reproduced relativistic, broadband radiation belt flux in the laboratory, and used this man-made space radiation to test the radiation hardness of space electronics. Such close mimicking of space radiation in the lab builds on the inherent ability of laser-plasma-accelerators to directly produce broadband Maxwellian-type particle flux, akin to conditions in space. In combination with the established sources, utilisation of the growing number of ever more potent laser-plasma-accelerator facilities worldwide as complementary space radiation sources can help alleviate the shortage of available beamtime and may allow for development of advanced test procedures, paving the way towards higher reliability of space missions.

Concepts: Electron, Particle physics, Proton, Atom, Neutron, Background radiation, Van Allen radiation belt, Radiation hardening


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are drugs used to suppress gastric acid production and treat GI disorders such as peptic ulcers and gastro-oesophageal reflux. They have been considered low risk, have been widely adopted, and are often over-prescribed. Recent studies have identified an increased risk of enteric and other infections with their use. Small studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and GI microbiota, but this has yet to be carried out on a large population-based cohort.

Concepts: Gut flora, Acid, Proton, Stomach, Peptic ulcer, Gastric acid, Parietal cell, Antacid


Graphene is increasingly explored as a possible platform for developing novel separation technologies. This interest has arisen because it is a maximally thin membrane that, once perforated with atomic accuracy, may allow ultrafast and highly selective sieving of gases, liquids, dissolved ions and other species of interest. However, a perfect graphene monolayer is impermeable to all atoms and molecules under ambient conditions: even hydrogen, the smallest of atoms, is expected to take billions of years to penetrate graphene’s dense electronic cloud. Only accelerated atoms possess the kinetic energy required to do this. The same behaviour might reasonably be expected in the case of other atomically thin crystals. Here we report transport and mass spectroscopy measurements which establish that monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are highly permeable to thermal protons under ambient conditions, whereas no proton transport is detected for thicker crystals such as monolayer molybdenum disulphide, bilayer graphene or multilayer hBN. Protons present an intermediate case between electrons (which can tunnel easily through atomically thin barriers) and atoms, yet our measured transport rates are unexpectedly high and raise fundamental questions about the details of the transport process. We see the highest room-temperature proton conductivity with monolayer hBN, for which we measure a resistivity to proton flow of about 10 Ω cm(2) and a low activation energy of about 0.3 electronvolts. At higher temperatures, hBN is outperformed by graphene, the resistivity of which is estimated to fall below 10(-3) Ω cm(2) above 250 degrees Celsius. Proton transport can be further enhanced by decorating the graphene and hBN membranes with catalytic metal nanoparticles. The high, selective proton conductivity and stability make one-atom-thick crystals promising candidates for use in many hydrogen-based technologies.

Concepts: Electron, Electric charge, Fundamental physics concepts, Hydrogen, Proton, Chemistry, Atom, Chemical bond


Erlotinib depends on stomach pH for its bioavailability. When erlotinib is taken concurrently with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), stomach pH increases, which results in a clinically relevant decrease of erlotinib bioavailability. We hypothesized that this drug-drug interaction is reversed by taking erlotinib with the acidic beverage cola. The effects of cola on erlotinib bioavailability in patients not treated with a PPI were also studied.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Acid, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Proton, Stomach, Gastric acid


NMR studies with hyperpolarized xenon as functionalized sensor or contrast agent recently made notable progress in developing a new approach for detecting molecular markers and parameters of biomedical interest. Combining spin polarization enhancement with novel indirect detection schemes easily enables a 10(7)-fold signal gain, thus having promising potential to solve the NMR sensitivity problem in many applications. Though an inert element, (129)Xe has exquisite NMR properties to sense molecular environments. This review summarizes recent developments in the production of hyperpolarized xenon and the design and detection schemes of xenon biosensors.

Concepts: Proton, Atom, Magnetic resonance imaging, Responsivity, Gain, Sense, Contrast medium, Contrast


We design well-defined metal-semiconductor nanostructures using thiol-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/quantum rods (QRs) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein-conjugated Au nanoparticles (NPs)/nanorods (NRs) in aqueous solution. The main focus of this article is to address the impacts of size and shape on the photophysical properties, including radiative and nonradiative decay processes and energy transfers, of Au-CdTe hybrid nanostructures. The red shifting of the plasmonic band and the strong photoluminescence (PL) quenching reveal a strong interaction between plasmons and excitons in these Au-CdTe hybrid nanostructures. The PL quenching of CdTe QDs varies from 40 to 86 % by changing the size and shape of the Au NPs. The radiative as well as the nonradiative decay rates of the CdTe QDs/QRs are found to be affected in the presence of both Au NPs and NRs. A significant change in the nonradiative decay rate from 4.72×10(6) to 3.92×10(10) s(-1) is obtained for Au NR-conjugated CdTe QDs. It is seen that the sizes and shapes of the Au NPs have a pronounced effect on the distance-dependent energy transfer. Such metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures should have great potentials for nonlinear optical properties, photovoltaic devices, and chemical sensors.

Concepts: Optics, Proton, Chemistry, Radioactive decay, Serum albumin, Solar cell, Surface plasmon resonance, Bovine serum albumin


Five novel compounds were isolated from the water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, and their structures were established by analysis of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-5 at 25μM showed strong inhibitory activity on the inflammatory cytokine, tumor-necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β production in cultured human myeloma THP-1 cells co-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide without any significant cytotoxicity, and their anti-allergic and antioxidant activities were evaluated.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Human, Proton, Physical chemistry, Activity, Chemical structure, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Tabebuia impetiginosa