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Concept: Propagation


The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

Concepts: In vitro, Propagation, Cranberry, Vaccinium, Plant propagation, Blueberry, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Ericaceae


Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys.

Concepts: Ratio, Wave, Sphere, Hooke's law, Group velocity, Wave propagation, Propagation, Phase velocity


In tropical regions, fires propagate readily in grasslands but typically consume only edges of forest patches. Thus, forest patches grow due to tree propagation and shrink by fires in surrounding grasslands. The interplay between these competing edge effects is unknown, but critical in determining the shape and stability of individual forest patches, as well the landscape-level spatial distribution and stability of forests. We analyze high-resolution remote-sensing data from protected Brazilian Cerrado areas and find that forest shapes obey a robust perimeter-area scaling relation across climatic zones. We explain this scaling by introducing a heterogeneous fire propagation model of tropical forest-grassland ecotones. Deviations from this perimeter-area relation determine the stability of individual forest patches. At a larger scale, our model predicts that the relative rates of tree growth due to propagative expansion and long-distance seed dispersal determine whether collapse of regional-scale tree cover is continuous or discontinuous as fire frequency changes.

Concepts: Ecosystem, Forest, Rainforest, Tropical rainforest, Steppe, Shape, Propagation, Savanna


We have reported that properties of prion strains may change when propagated in different environments. For example, when swainsonine-sensitive 22L prions were propagated in PK1 cells in the presence of swainsonine, drug-resistant variants emerged. We proposed that prions constitute quasi- populations comprising a range of variants with different properties, from which the fittest are selected in a particular environment. Prion populations developed heterogeneity even after biological cloning, indicating that during propagation mutation-like processes occur at the conformational level. Because brain-derived 22L prions are naturally swainsonine resistant, it was not too surprising that prions which had become swa sensitive after propagation in cells could revert to drug resistance. Because RML prions, both after propagation in brain or in PK1 cells, are swainsonine sensitive, we investigated whether it was nonetheless possible to select swainsonine-resistant variants by propagation in the presence of the drug. Interestingly, this was not possible with the standard line of PK1 cells, but in certain PK1 sublines not only swainsonine-resistant, but even swainsonine-dependent populations (i.e. that propagated more rapidly in the presence of the drug) could be isolated. Once established, they could be passaged indefinitely in PK1 cells, even in the absence of the drug, without losing swainsonine dependence. The misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) associated with a swainsonine-dependent variant was less rapidly cleared in PK1 cells than that associated with its drug-sensitive counterpart, indicating that likely structural differences of the misfolded PrP underlie the properties of the prions. In summary, propagation of prions in the presence of an inhibitory drug may not only cause the selection of drug-resistant prions but even of stable variants that propagate more efficiently in the presence of the drug. These adaptations are most likely due to conformational changes of the abnormal prion protein.

Concepts: Protein, Antibiotic resistance, Protein folding, Prion, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, Propagation, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Fatal familial insomnia


Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or “proneural wave” accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation.

Concepts: Mathematics, Function, Developmental biology, In vivo, Pattern, Partial differential equation, Propagation, Pattern formation


Low molecular weight oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) have emerged as the primary toxic agents in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). Polymorphism observed within the aggregation end products of fibrils are known to arise due to microstructural differences among the oligomers. Diversity in aggregate morphology correlates with the differences in AD, cementing the idea that conformational strains of oligomers could be significant in phenotypic outcomes. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the ability of strains to faithfully propagate their structure. Here we report fibril propagation of an Aβ42 dodecamer called large fatty acid-derived oligomers (LFAOs). The LFAO oligomeric strain selectively induces acute cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in neonatally-injected transgenic CRND8 mice. Propagation in-vitro occurs as a three-step process involving the association of LFAO units. LFAO-seeded fibrils possess distinct morphology made of repeating LFAO units that could be regenerated upon sonication. Overall, these data bring forth an important mechanistic perspective into strain-specific propagation of oligomers that has remained elusive thus far.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Molecule, Amyloid, Aggregate, Beta amyloid, Oligomer, Propagation, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy


We consider a dynamical model of distress propagation on complex networks, which we apply to the study of financial contagion in networks of banks connected to each other by direct exposures. The model that we consider is an extension of the DebtRank algorithm, recently introduced in the literature. The mechanics of distress propagation is very simple: When a bank suffers a loss, distress propagates to its creditors, who in turn suffer losses, and so on. The original DebtRank assumes that losses are propagated linearly between connected banks. Here we relax this assumption and introduce a one-parameter family of non-linear propagation functions. As a case study, we apply this algorithm to a data-set of 183 European banks, and we study how the stability of the system depends on the non-linearity parameter under different stress-test scenarios. We find that the system is characterized by a transition between a regime where small shocks can be amplified and a regime where shocks do not propagate, and that the overall stability of the system increases between 2008 and 2013.

Concepts: Mathematics, Fundamental physics concepts, Chaos theory, Model theory, Propagation, Currying, Dynamical systems, Bank


We present a novel method to generate plausible diffraction effects for interactive sound propagation in dynamic scenes. Our approach precomputes a diffraction kernel for each dynamic object in the scene and combines them with interactive ray tracing algorithms at runtime. A diffraction kernel encapsulates the sound interaction behavior of individual objects in the free field and we present a new source placement algorithm to significantly accelerate the precomputation. Our overall propagation algorithm can handle highly-tessellated or smooth objects undergoing rigid motion. We have evaluated our algorithm’s performance on different scenarios with multiple moving objects and demonstrate the benefits over prior interactive geometric sound propagation methods. We also performed a user study to evaluate the perceived smoothness of the diffracted field and found that the auditory perception using our approach is comparable to that of a wave-based sound propagation method.

Concepts: Diffraction, Optics, Sense, Wavelength, Sound, Programming language, Algebraic geometry, Propagation


The artificial compound eye is a new type of camera that has miniature volume and large field of view (FOV), while the captured image is an array of sub-images, and each sub-image captures a part of the full FOV. To obtain a complete image with a full FOV, reconstruction is needed. Due to the parallax between adjacent sub-images, the reconstruction of images is depth related. In this paper, to address the image reconstruction of a specific artificial compound eye-eCley-a cross image belief propagation method is proposed to estimate the depth map. Since the small size and small FOV of the sub-image lead to little contextual information for pairwise matching, the information of neighboring sub-images is integrated into the belief propagation step to propagate the message across images. Therefore, the belief propagation step is able to gather as much information as needed from all the sub-images to obtain an accurate depth result. As a consequence, a stereo image with the full FOV and corresponding depth map can be obtained based on the estimated depth of sub-images. Experimental results on real data show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Concepts: Eye, Vision, Depth perception, Photography, Binocular vision, Propagation, Field of view


High-resolution mapping of gastrointestinal (GI) slow waves is a valuable technique for research and clinical applications. Interpretation of high-resolution GI mapping data relies on animations of slow wave propagation, but current methods remain as rudimentary, pixelated electrode activation animations. This study aimed to develop improved methods of visualizing high-resolution slow wave recordings that increases ease of interpretation.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Wave, Group velocity, Wave propagation, Propagation, Phase velocity, Wave equation, Transmission medium