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Concept: Prolactinoma


Increased risk of heart valve disease during treatment with certain dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline, has been observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease. The same compound is used to treat hyperprolactinemia, but it is unknown whether this also associates with heart valve disease.

Concepts: Cohort study, Parkinson's disease, Prolactinoma, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Cabergoline, Valvular heart disease, Bromocriptine


Cabergoline (CAB) has been found to be associated with increased risk of cardiac valve regurgitation in Parkinson’s disease (PD), whereas several retrospective analyses failed to detect a similar relation in hyperprolactinemic patients. The current study aimed at investigating cardiac valve disease before and after 24 and 60 months of continuous treatment with CAB only in patients with hyperprolactinemia.

Concepts: Parkinson's disease, Erectile dysfunction, Dopamine, Prolactinoma, Cabergoline, Valvular heart disease, Bromocriptine, Pergolide


The use of dopamine agonists (DAs) has been associated with increased impulsivity and impulse control disorders in several diseases, including Parkinson’s disease. Such an effect of DAs on impulsivity has not been clearly characterized in hyperprolactinemic patients, where DAs are the mainstay of therapy. We studied the effects of DAs on impulsivity in hyperprolactinemic patients treated at a tertiary pituitary center, using validated psychometric tests. Cross-sectional study. Impulsivity was evaluated in 30 subjects, 10 hyperprolactinemic patients on DAs compared to two control groups; one comprising untreated hyperprolactinemic patients (n = 10) and a second group consisting of normoprolactinemic controls with pituitary lesions (n = 10). Measures of impulsivity included both self-report questionnaires as well as laboratory-based tasks. Hyperprolactinemic patients on DAs had a higher score (mean ± SD) in one self-report measure of impulsivity, the attention subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (16.2 ± 2.7), as compared to the hyperprolactinemic control group (12.3 ± 2.5) and the normoprolactinemic group (14.7 ± 4.4) (p = 0.04). No statistically significant difference was found between groups with regards to the other impulsivity scales. In the DA-treated group, a correlation was observed between increased impulsivity (as assessed in the Experiential Discounting Task) and higher weekly cabergoline dose (r(2) = 0.49, p = 0.04). The use of DAs in hyperprolactinemic patients is associated with an increase in one aspect of impulsivity. This effect should be further characterized in larger, longitudinal studies.

Concepts: Scientific method, Statistical significance, Parkinson's disease, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Prolactinoma, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Cabergoline


The management of giant prolactinomas remains a major challenge, despite dopamine agonists being the first line of treatment, owing to its efficacy to normalize prolactin levels and reduce tumor volume. The aim of this study is to characterize the therapeutic aspects, manifestations and outcomes of 16 cases of giant prolactinomas admitted at a single tertiary center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Prolactin, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Mecca, Middle East, Prolactinoma, Jeddah, Ha'il


Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), remain the only pituitary tumor subtype for which no effective medical therapy is available or recommended. We evaluated dopamine agonist (DA) therapy for preventing growth of post-surgical pituitary tumor remnants.

Concepts: Medicine, Oncology, Pituitary adenoma, Types of cancer, Neuroendocrinology, Prolactinoma, Dopamine agonist


Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a relatively uncommon inflammatory breast lesion with multiple suggested etiologies. Although most GM cases show association with lactation and pregnancy, a minority of cases have been linked to hyperprolactinemia caused by either dopamine antagonist medications or with intracranial lesions, such as pituitary adenoma. The goal of this study is to review the GM cases reported in the literature with a specific emphasis on those cases associated with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas and to identify cases of GM seen at the Cleveland Clinic Florida which demonstrate co-occurrences of GM and intracranial lesions. CoPath and Epic data bases at Cleveland Clinic Florida were searched for cases describing inflammatory breast lesions in patients with pituitary pathology. Chart reviews were conducted and pertinent medical history was extracted for case reports. H&E-stained paraffin-embedded sections retrieved from Cleveland Clinic Florida pathology storage were evaluated by light microscopy. Four cases showing a co-occurrence of GM and hyperprolactinemia were consequently identified. A prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was present in two of the three GM cases. The third case demonstrated a concomitant craniopharyngioma, which was also associated with a rise in serum prolactin. This phenomenon was presumably attributable to compression, resulting in compromised transport of dopamine to the adenohypophysis and subsequent disinhibition of prolactin secretion by lactotrophs. The fourth patient with GM had a similar history of elevated prolactin. Classical histopathological features of GM were found in all four cases, including noncaseating granulomas, multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes, and chronic inflammation. Intriguingly, complete resolution of inflammatory breast lesions along with normalization of prolactin levels occurred following the surgical excision of the craniopharyngioma, suggesting that intracranial lesion-induced hyperprolactinemia might be directly causal in GM. Therefore, the authors would suggest screening for pituitary tumors and evaluate prolactin levels in the workup of GM patients without a recent history of lactation and pregnancy and no other identified etiology.

Concepts: Hypothalamus, Prolactin, Pituitary adenoma, Anatomical pathology, Types of cancer, Neuroendocrinology, Prolactinoma, Galactorrhea


A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL. Tumor size varied from 6 to 70 mm. Pituitary adenomas grew in a parasellar pattern with visual deficits occurring 40.7% of the time. After surgical therapy, 88.6% of patients achieved symptom relief, and 98.4% experienced an immediate postoperative decline in prolactin level. Fifty-seven patients (31.0%) achieved initial remission, and 26 patients (45.6%) experienced recurrence. Hence, our results suggest that in male prolactinoma characterized by a large pituitary diameter and high serum prolactin level, tumor size predicts the degree of gross resection. The prognostic predictors included preoperative tumor growth pattern and Ki-67 index.Citation: Yi-jun S, Mei-ting C, Wei L, Bing X, Yong Y, Ming F, Ren-zhi W. (2016) Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: a retrospective study of 184 cases.

Concepts: Hypothalamus, Prolactin, Pituitary adenoma, Surgery, Growth hormone, Neuroendocrinology, Erectile dysfunction, Prolactinoma


Cystic prolactinomas are considered resistant to volume reduction by dopamine agonists (DA). Although several individual case reports and small case series have suggested that DAs may reduce these lesions, larger series using standardized imaging metrics are lacking.

Concepts: Prolactinoma, Dopamine agonist


Most prolactinomas in females are diagnosed during the reproductive age and the majority are microadenomas. Prolactinomas detected in the postmenopausal period are less common with limited published data on their presentation and prognosis. Our objective was to assess the presenting clinical, biochemical and imaging findings, as well as the outcomes of women diagnosed with a prolactinoma in the postmenopausal period.

Concepts: Female, Estrogen, Menstrual cycle, Woman, Prolactinoma, Adenoma


Microprolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas. In symptomatic patients, dopamine agonists are the first treatment of choice; when cabergoline is used, biochemical control rates between 85 and 93% have been reported. Long-term treatment is needed in most of the cases with compliance, patient convenience and potential adverse effects representing areas requiring attention. Based on the literature published in the last 15 years, transsphenoidal surgery can lead to normal prolactin in the post-operative period in usually 71-100% of the cases with very low post-operative complication rates. Surgical expertise is the major determinant of the outcomes and it may be a cost-effective option in young patients with life expectancy greater than ten years (provided it is performed by experienced surgeons at high volume centres with confirmed optimal outcomes). Larger series of patients with adequate follow-up could further validate the place of transsphenoidal surgery (particularly through the endoscopic approach for which long-term results are currently limited) in the management algorithm of patients with microprolactinoma.

Concepts: Hypothalamus, Medical terms, Prolactin, Pituitary adenoma, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Prolactinoma