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Concept: Progressive lens

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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is associated with natalizumab treatment. We quantified the risk of PML in patients with multiple sclerosis, according to the presence or absence of three risk factors: positive status with respect to anti-JC virus antibodies, prior use of immunosuppressants, and increasing duration of natalizumab treatment.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, According to Jim, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, Natalizumab, Treatment of multiple sclerosis

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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare but potentially lethal adverse event in natalizumab treated multiple sclerosis patients. We report on a 40-year old Caucasian man with typical relapsing progressive multiple sclerosis, who developed a reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome after 43 natalizumab infusions mimicking progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind. Our case suggests that awareness ought to be sharpened for reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome in the follow-up of natalizumab treated multiple sclerosis patients.

Concepts: Developed country, Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, Natalizumab, Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Treatment of multiple sclerosis

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The use of natalizumab has likely been limited by its association with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an infection caused by the human polyomavirus John Cunningham (JC). Three factors were recently identified that contribute to the overall risk of natalizumab-associated PML: (1) Positive serostatus for anti-JCV antibodies, (2) prior use of immunosuppressants, and (3) duration of natalizumab therapy. This risk stratification algorithm has not led to a reduction in the incidence of PML in natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis between April 2010 and February 2014. This observation may appear perplexing, as treatment duration and JCV serostatus are modifiable risk factors. Potential reasons for the lack of success of companion diagnostics that determine the overall risk of natalizumab-associated PML are discussed.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Oligodendrocyte, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, JC virus, Rituximab, Polyomavirus, Natalizumab

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PurposeTo analyze the incidence and clinical course of patients developing progressive ocular inflammation following anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) for presumed ocular tuberculosis (TB).MethodsRetrospective analysis of medical records of patients who received ATT for presumed ocular TB and completed at least 12 months follow-up after initiation of ATT. The diagnosis of presumed ocular TB was based on presence of ocular signs suggestive of TB, evidence of past tubercular infection, and exclusion of mimicking clinical entities. All patients received a combination of ATT and corticosteroid therapy. Primary outcome measure was progression (worsening) of ocular inflammation, defined as a two-step increase in level of inflammation (anterior chamber/ vitreous) or the appearance of new lesions following initiation of ATT.ResultsA total of 106 patients (64 male, 42 female) received ATT for presumed ocular TB. Twenty-six (24.5%) patients developed progressive intraocular inflammation following ATT. Primary diagnoses in these patients were: anterior uveitis (n=1), intermediate uveitis (n=9), retinal vasculitis (n=3), serpiginous-like choroiditis (n=7), multifocal choroiditis (n=2), and pan-uveitis (n=4). Following progressive inflammation, diagnosis was revised in two patients (7.7%)-both responded to alternative therapy. Of the rest, majority (n=16; 61.5%) resolved with escalation of corticosteroid therapy. Five patients (19.2%)-all having intermediate uveitis-required therapeutic vitrectomy for resolution. Three patients (11.5%) had persistent inflammation at end of follow-up period.ConclusionProgressive inflammation following ATT for presumed ocular TB is common. It generally resolves on escalation of corticosteroid therapy. Cases not responding to increased immunosuppression need to be re-investigated to rule out a nontubercular cause.Eye advance online publication, 1 March 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.5.

Concepts: Vasculitis, Corticosteroid, Retina, Ophthalmology, Progressive lens, Sarcoidosis, Uveitis, Escalation

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PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to analyze the effect of the base curve on progressive power lens performance by means of the Sheedy scoring technique. We expect to find strong differences on this effect depending on the definition of lens power and on the lens optimization method. METHODS: We have used six different back side progressive lens designs. Three of them have been optimized for improving the power perceived by the user in the actual position of use. The other three have been optimized to provide prescription power when measured with a focimeter or a mapper. We have used exact ray tracing to compute both the user power maps and the focimeter power maps. We have applied the Sheedy method to these maps and analyzed the results. RESULTS: When this scoring technique is run with focimeter power maps, the performance of customized lenses is highly base curve dependent. Instead, classical lens performance is quite stable against base curve changes. On the contrary, if we run the test with user power maps, we find the opposite behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive lens scoring is highly dependent on how the lens has been designed and how the lens is measured. Besides, customization of progressive lenses by real ray tracing guarantees that prescription and design parameters are preserved at the position of use regardless the base curve selected to make the lens.

Concepts: Progressive lens, Corrective lens, Glasses

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To evaluate a method for measuring the cylinder, sphere, and wavefront of progressive addition lenses (PALs) in eyeglass frames.

Concepts: Java, Progressive lens, Corrective lens, Corrective lenses, Glasses

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Natalizumab (NAT) is associated with the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Risk stratification algorithms have been developed, however, without detectable reduction of PML incidence.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, Natalizumab, Treatment of multiple sclerosis

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The authors report a fatal case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a 54-year-old woman in whom lymphocytopenia developed after treatment with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate for multiple sclerosis.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, Fumaric acid, Dimethyl fumarate

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The use of natalizumab for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Through measurement of the anti-JCV antibody index, and in combination with the presence or absence of other known risk factors, it may be possible to stratify patients with MS according to their risk of developing PML during treatment with natalizumab and detect early suspected PML using MRI including a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. This paper describes a practical consensus guideline for treating neurologists, based on current evidence, for the introduction into routine clinical practice of anti-JCV antibody index testing of immunosuppressant-naïve patients with MS, either currently being treated with, or initiating, natalizumab, based on their anti-JCV antibody status. Recommendations for the frequency and type of MRI screening in patients with varying index-associated PML risks are also discussed. This consensus paper presents a simple and pragmatic algorithm to support the introduction of anti-JCV antibody index testing and MRI monitoring into standard PML safety protocols, in order to allow some JCV positive patients who wish to begin or continue natalizumab treatment to be managed with a more individualised analysis of their PML risk.

Concepts: Risk, Magnetic resonance imaging, Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, JC virus, Natalizumab, Stratification

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We describe the characteristics of the 15 patients with fingolimod-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) identified from the Novartis data safety base and provide risk estimates for the disorder.

Concepts: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens