SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Program

194

Most dietary programs fail to produce lasting outcomes because participants soon return to their old habits. Small behavioral and environmental changes based on simple heuristics may have the best chance to lead to sustainable habit changes over time.

Concepts: Health, Nutrition, Program, 2006 albums, Program management, Habit, Heuristic

171

School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs can substantially enhance the sub-optimal coverage achieved under existing delivery strategies. Randomized SLIV trials have shown these programs reduce laboratory-confirmed influenza among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children. This work explores the effectiveness of a SLIV program in reducing the community risk of influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) associated emergency care visits.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Virus, Vaccine, Vaccination, Influenza, Program, Influenza vaccine, Influenza-like illness

83

Stuffed animal sleepover programs have been conducted by libraries worldwide. This study sought to (1) determine whether the stuffed animal sleepover program increased children’s reading and (2) examine the duration of the effect. Forty-two children who attended preschool participated in the study. The results indicated that the number of children who read picture books to stuffed animals increased following the program, but the program’s effect decreased within three days. One month later, the children were reminded of the stuffed animal sleepover program. The number of children who read picture books to stuffed animals increased again after the reminder. The results suggest that (1) stuffed animal sleepover programs can positively affect children’s reading of picture books, (2) the duration of the program’s effect can be short, and (3) reminding children of the program can be an effective strategy to revive and sustain their interest in picture books. These results are discussed in terms of the psychological characteristics of childhood.

Concepts: Effect, Program, Jimi Hendrix, Stuffed toy

73

The role and value of theory in improvement work in healthcare has been seriously underrecognised. We join others in proposing that more informed use of theory can strengthen improvement programmes and facilitate the evaluation of their effectiveness. Many professionals, including improvement practitioners, are unfortunately mystified-and alienated-by theory, which discourages them from using it in their work. In an effort to demystify theory we make the point in this paper that, far from being discretionary or superfluous, theory (‘reason-giving’), both informal and formal, is intimately woven into virtually all human endeavour. We explore the special characteristics of grand, mid-range and programme theory; consider the consequences of misusing theory or failing to use it; review the process of developing and applying programme theory; examine some emerging criteria of ‘good’ theory; and emphasise the value, as well as the challenge, of combining informal experience-based theory with formal, publicly developed theory. We conclude that although informal theory is always at work in improvement, practitioners are often not aware of it or do not make it explicit. The germane issue for improvement practitioners, therefore, is not whether they use theory but whether they make explicit the particular theory or theories, informal and formal, they actually use.

Concepts: Computer program, Theory, Program, Theorem, Formal, The Point

36

The behavioral management of laboratory nonhuman primates in the United States has not been thoroughly characterized since 2003. This article presents the results of a survey behavioral management programs at 27 facilities and covering a total of 59,636 primates, 27,916 housed in indoor cages and 31,720 in group enclosures. The survey included questions regarding program structure, implementation, and methodology associated with social housing, positive reinforcement training, positive human interaction, exercise enclosures, and several categories of inanimate enrichment. The vast majority of laboratory primates are housed socially (83%). Since 2003, the proportion of indoor-housed primates reported to be housed singly has fallen considerably, from 59% to 35% in the facilities surveyed. The use of social housing remains significantly constrained by: 1) research protocol requirements, highlighting the value of closely involved IACUCs for harmonizing research and behavioral management; and 2) the unavailability of compatible social partners, underscoring the necessity of objective analysis of the methods used to foster and maintain compatibility. Positive reinforcement training appears to have expanded and is now used at all facilities responding to the survey. The use of enrichment devices has also increased in the participating facilities. For most behavioral management techniques, concerns over the possibility of negative consequences to animals are expressed most frequently for social housing and destructible enrichment, while skepticism regarding efficacy is limited almost exclusively to sensory enrichment. Behavioral management program staffing has expanded over time in the facilities surveyed, due not only to increased numbers of dedicated behavioral management technicians but also to greater involvement of animal care technicians, suggesting an increase in the integration of behavioral care into animal husbandry. Broad awareness of common practice may assist facilities with program evaluation and assessment of progress in the field can generate recommendations for continuing the advancement of primate behavioral management programs. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Evaluation, United States, Animal, Primate, Program, Reinforcement, Surveying, Program management

31

The benefits of physical activity are well documented, but scalable programs to promote activity are needed. Interventions that assign tailored and dynamically adjusting goals could effect significant increases in physical activity but have not yet been implemented at scale.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Efficacy, Program, Peer-to-peer

28

BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve is important in maintaining HPA axis and sympatho-adrenal system (SAS) homeostasis, however little is known about the effect of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), as used therapeutically, on these functions. Accordingly, the effect of VNS on plasma indices of HPA axis (ACTH, corticosterone), and SAS (norepinephrine, epinephrine) function were evaluated in rats. METHODS: Male rats, on day-0 (D0), underwent surgeries for implantation of catheters into the right jugular vein and programmable (VNP) or non-programmable (VND) neurocybernetic devices encircling the left cervical vagus. On D7, after a blood sample, the device in VNP rats was programmed to deliver 500μs width, 0.25mA current pulses at 20Hz (‘on’ 30s, ‘off’ 5min) followed by timed blood samples during the next 90min. In acute studies, VNS was stopped at 60min and the rats were perfused at 90min to evaluate neuronal Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). In chronic studies, the probe remained active. In these rats, the HPA axis response to airpuff-startle stressor (D17) and anterior pituitary CRF-receptor binding (D26) were evaluated. RESULTS: During acute VNS, plasma indices of HPA axis and SAS activity, as well as Fos-IR activation pattern in brain regions known to increase after stress, were not different between VND and VNP rats. During chronic VNS, stress-induced HPA axis responses exhibited a tendency toward faster recovery to baseline in VNP rats. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic VNS is not a stressor and does not compromise HPA axis or SAS homeostasis. Chronic VNS may facilitate development of efficient feedback mechanisms.

Concepts: Hypothalamus, Vagus nerve, Cranial nerves, Acetylcholine, Computer program, Internal jugular vein, Vagus nerve stimulation, Program

27

Exercise programs targeting muscle strength and balance can reduce falls. The study aimed to compare the Otago Exercise Program (OEP), originally designed as supervised home training (HT), with the same programme performed as GT, on functional balance and muscle strength, mobility, fall efficacy and self-reported health.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Muscle, Physical exercise, Computer program, Program, The Program, Exercise physiology, Program management

27

Background: Medical students value teaching by junior doctors and find it comparable to consultant-led teaching. Although several junior doctor-led teaching programmes have been developed, there is insufficient information in the literature to guide junior doctors planning on developing such programmes. Aim: This article gives junior doctors 12 practical tips on how they might develop and run successful teaching programmes for medical students. Results: The 12 tips are (1) Clearly define the scope of your programme, (2) Ensure student-defined learning goals are included at an early stage, (3) Inform and involve your fellow junior doctors in teaching, (4) Plan teaching rotas in advance, (5) Learn to teach effectively by attending courses, (6) Promote your programme to medical students as widely as possible, (7) Use varied and interactive teaching methods, (8) Establish rapport with students, (9) Include assessment as part of the teaching programme, (10) Seek feedback from attendees and senior faculty, (11) Establish rules for tutorials and (12) Secure formal recognition for your scheme. Conclusions: These 12 tips may help junior doctors to develop and manage successful teaching programmes. It may also be a useful guide for senior faculty advising junior doctors who aspire to establish such teaching programmes.

Concepts: Education, University, Learning, Program, School, Teacher, Teaching

25

Epidemiological data demonstrate the need for lower extremity injury prevention training. Neuromuscular control (NMC) programs are immediately effective at minimizing lower extremity injury risk and improving sport-related performance measures. Research investigating lasting effects following an injury prevention program is limited.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Improve, Computer program, Program, Program management, Basketball