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Concept: Prognathism


The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the prevalence of malocclusion at ages 3 and 7 years in a sample of children, exploring the hypothesis that prevalence of malocclusion is higher at 3 than at 7 years of age and may be influenced by sucking habits. The study sample comprised 386 children (199 girls and 187 boys), aged 3 years at study start, sourced from three Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Malocclusion was diagnosed by clinical examination, using a specific protocol. Data on allergy, traumatic injuries, sucking habits, and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances were obtained by means of a questionnaire answered by child and parent in conjunction with the initial and final clinical examination. The overall prevalence of malocclusion decreased significantly, from 70 to 58% (P < 0.0001): predominantly anterior open bite, excessive overjet, and Class III malocclusion. Although high rates of spontaneous correction were also noted for deep bite, Class II malocclusion and posterior and anterior crossbites, new cases developed at almost the same rate; thus, the prevalence was unchanged at the end of the observation period. Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the only conditions showing significant associations with sucking habits. The results confirm the hypothesis of higher prevalence of malocclusion at 3 years of age and clearly support the strategy of deferring orthodontic correction of malocclusion until the mixed dentition stage.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Age, Sociology, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Dental braces, Prognathism


In the present report, we describe the successful use of miniscrews to achieve vertical control in combination with the conventional sliding MBT™ straight-wire technique for the treatment of a 26-year-old Chinese woman with a very high mandibular plane angle, deep overbite, retrognathic mandible with backward rotation, prognathic maxilla, and gummy smile. The patient exhibited skeletal Class II malocclusion. Orthodontic miniscrews were placed in the maxillary anterior and posterior segments to provide rigid anchorage and vertical control through intrusion of the incisors and molars. Intrusion and torque control of the maxillary incisors relieved the deep overbite and corrected the gummy smile, while intrusion of the maxillary molars aided in counterclockwise rotation of the mandibular plane, which consequently resulted in an improved facial profile. After 3.5 years of retention, we observed a stable, well-aligned dentition with ideal intercuspation and more harmonious facial contours. Thus, we were able to achieve a satisfactory occlusion, a significantly improved facial profile, and an attractive smile for this patient. The findings from this case suggest that nonsurgical correction using miniscrew anchorage is an effective approach for camouflage treatment of high-angle cases with skeletal Class II malocclusion.

Concepts: Torque, Mandible, Horse, Teeth, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Maxilla, Prognathism


This study investigated short- and long-term postoperative skeletal changes following intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) for mandibular prognathism, as determined from lateral cephalograms. The subjects were 20 patients with mandibular prognathism who had undergone surgical orthodontic treatment combined with IVRO. Lateral cephalograms were taken at six time points: 1 month before surgery, and 1 day, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and approximately 2 years after surgery. Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with four monocortical screws was maintained for 1 week in all patients. Mean posterior movement of the menton (Me) was 5.9mm at surgery. 3 months after surgery, the FMA and FH-CorMe angles had increased 6.3 and 6.2 degrees, respectively, indicating clockwise rotation of the distal segment of the mandible. This rotation was observed in all 20 patients, suggesting that postoperative rotation of the mandible in the postoperative short term is likely to occur after IVRO and could be considered an adaptation of the mastication system newly established by surgery. In the long term after IVRO, Me had moved anteriorly by only 0.9mm and the relapse ratio was 15.3%. These findings suggest the excellent long-term stability of surgical orthodontic treatment combined with IVRO in patients with mandibular prognathism.

Concepts: Time, Surgery, Economics, Term, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Orthodontics, Prognathism


Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the orthodontic treatment need in school going children in Moradabad, North India, to assess the malocclusion traits, concern towards Dental Health and individual aesthetic perception compared to orthodontist’s opinion. Methods: 5232 children, aged 11-14yrs formed the sample. The Dental Health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) were recorded as defined by Brook and Shaw, with slight modification for AC assessment. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that only 12.5% children had no treatment need while 87.5% presented malocclusion with varying treatment needs. There was insignificant sex difference for aesthetic perception. Examiner graded children less attractive than children. Class I was the most common malocclusion and crowding was the most common malocclusion trait. High intra-examiner and substantial inter-examiner agreements were observed for DHC and substantial intra- examiner and moderate inter-examiner agreements for AC. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that, IOTN is a reliable epidemiologic tool to benefit local health services in planning their budget, and improve focus of services by inducing greater uniformity and standardization in the assessment of Orthodontic treatment need.

Concepts: Public health, Health, Epidemiology, Dentistry, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Dental braces, Prognathism


Orthodontics has undergone a paradigm shift in the last 40 years. There have been both technical and philosophical changes ushered by the development of new appliances, techniques, and by the explosion in the amount of research being conducted all around the world. However, the application of any new concept requires a firm understanding of the fundamentals of orthodontics. This paper presents a broad review of some fundamental concepts of treatment mechanics that enable us to bring about skeletal and dental correction of the presenting malocclusion. The basic concepts of facemask therapy, mechanics, and biology of tooth movement will be discussed with an insight into the challenges facing us in the future.

Concepts: Abstraction, Object-oriented programming, Dentistry, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Dental braces, Fluoride therapy, Prognathism


Extraction subjects with >4 mm overjet were rated higher than the non-extraction subjects , .  2018; 153: 81-86.

Concepts: Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Dental braces, Prognathism


Given the limited evidence about the benefits of orthodontic treatment, many health care systems have rationed access to orthodontic care with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) being one tool used to attempt to allocate resources based on need. However, it is not clear whether patient and public valuations of different levels of need (as described by the IOTN) reflect the resource allocation decisions. The aim of this project was therefore to determine the values parents placed on correction of malocclusions at different IOTN levels using the willingness to pay (WTP) technique.

Concepts: Health care, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Dental braces, Resource allocation, Resource, Resources, Prognathism


Achieving ideal results when treating a difficult malocclusion is a challenge that orthodontists frequently encounter. Maintaining those results is sometimes more challenging than the correction itself. As specialists in orthodontics, we should be able to apply bone physiology concepts during the diagnosis and treatment planning process and predict how bone will react after biomechanical stimuli. Understanding bone physiology and the biology of tissue response during orthodontic tooth movement should allow us to develop the proper mechanical design and consequently the therapeutic procedures necessary to achieve the expected tooth position and bone architecture. Surgically facilitated orthodontic therapy uses basic bone biology and physiologic bone turnover procedures as well as basic orthodontic biomechanical principles to correct dental malocclusions in the shortest, safest, and most conservative manner. The correction of such malocclusions with this approach is expected to be functional and stable.

Concepts: Biology, Anatomy, Dentistry, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, Dental braces, Fluoride therapy, Prognathism


Oro-dental pathologies (ODP) such as enlargement of the tongue, mandibular prognathism, and spaced teeth are characteristic features of acromegaly. Their frequency of occurrence during the course of the disease is largely unresolved. Purpose of this study was to assess ODP and oro-dental treatments in patients with acromegaly with regard to the length of the diagnostic process, tumor histology, and quality of life (QoL).

Concepts: Cancer, Biology, Medical terms, Life, Anatomical pathology, Quality, Quality of life, Prognathism