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Concept: Professional


Changing professionals' attitudes toward seclusion is seen as an important condition to reduce its use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether professionals from a mental health institute in the Netherlands changed in their attitudes toward seclusion after implementation of a multifaceted seclusion reduction program. Professionals working on four acute admission wards filled in the Professional Attitudes Toward Seclusion Questionnaire (PATS-Q) before and after a seclusion reduction program. Changes were analyzed by comparing mean scores on the PATS-Q. After the program, professionals scored significantly higher on ‘ethics’ and ‘more care’. As expected, no change occurred on ‘reasons’ for the use of seclusion. In addition, no significant changes were found on ‘confidence’, ‘better care’ and ‘other care’. Significant changes in professional attitudes concerning the ethics of using seclusion and involving issues of more care were observed after a seclusion reduction program. Mental health professionals moved in the direction of ‘transformers’, indicating an increased criticism of the practice of seclusion and increased willingness to change their own use of seclusion.

Concepts: Professional, Practice-based professional learning, Change, Netherlands, Psychiatry, Tess Gaerthé


Financial ties between health professionals and industry may unduly influence professional judgments and some researchers have suggested that widening disease definitions may be one driver of over-diagnosis, bringing potentially unnecessary labeling and harm. We aimed to identify guidelines in which disease definitions were changed, to assess whether any proposed changes would increase the numbers of individuals considered to have the disease, whether potential harms of expanding disease definitions were investigated, and the extent of members' industry ties.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cross-sectional study, United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Professional, Potential, War on Terrorism



Evidence suggests that an athlete’s sports-related perceptual-cognitive expertise is a crucial element of top-level competitive sports1. When directly assessing whether such experience-related abilities correspond to fundamental and non-specific cognitive laboratory measures such as processing speed and attention, studies have shown moderate effects leading to the conclusion that their special abilities are context-specific2. We trained 308 observers on a complex dynamic visual scene task void of context and motor control requirements3 and demonstrate that professionals as a group dramatically differ from high-level amateur athletes, who dramatically differ from non-athlete university students in their capacity to learn such stimuli. This demonstrates that a distinguishing factor explaining the capacities of professional athletes is their ability to learn how to process complex dynamic visual scenes. This gives us an insight as to what is so special about the elite athletes' mental abilities, which allows them to express great prowess in action.

Concepts: Psychology, Skill, Professional, Learning, 2005 albums, Amateur, Amateur sports, Professional sports


Leonard Rubenstein and colleagues argue that professional associations should ensure that military rules do not require health professionals to choose between service to their country and ethical practice.

Concepts: Professional, Practice-based professional learning


Systematic reviews consistently indicate that interventions to change healthcare professional (HCP) behaviour are haphazardly designed and poorly specified. Clarity about methods for designing and specifying interventions is needed. The objective of this review was to identify published methods for designing interventions to change HCP behaviour.

Concepts: Medicine, Professional, Review, Design


Prevailing health care structures and cultures restrict intraprofessional communication, inhibiting knowledge dissemination and impacting the translation of research into practice. Virtual communities may facilitate professional networking and knowledge sharing in and between health care disciplines.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Healthcare, Sociology, Professional, Practice-based professional learning, Communication, Virtual community


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not considered a professional disease, and the effect of different occupations and working conditions on susceptibility to CAP is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine whether different jobs and certain working conditions are risk factors for CAP.

Concepts: Professional, Occupations


Abstract Interprofessional (IP) practice embraces a range of collaborations among health professionals that includes referral networks, case management and simultaneous co-management models of health care. How IP competencies are interpreted and enacted in the curriculum falls to health educators. The aim of this research was to examine health educators' interpretations of IP competencies in five health professions (chiropractic, naturopathy, osteopathy, physiotherapy and podiatry) in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six educators. Transcripts were analysed using constant comparison to identify emergent themes. A number of interpretations of IP practice was evident (e.g. knowing professional scopes of practice and when to refer, and co-assessing and co-managing patients). Lack of resources limited IP practice enactment in the curriculum, including complementary medicine participation in IP teams.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Professional, Alternative medicine, Managed care, Chiropractic, Osteopathy, Naturopathy


Social media is no longer a new concept, with social media platforms dominating how many communicate. It would be unrealistic to expect that dentistry would not become involved in the use of social media for professional reasons, as well as professionals using social media platforms privately. Despite it being acceptable for dental professionals to have social media presence, those dental professionals have a framework of professional, ethical and legal obligations to which they must conform when using social media. This article seeks to discuss how unintentionally professionalism might be breached by dental professionals not making a distinction between social media and other facets of professional life. There is need for a discussion about how as a profession, dentistry might perceive the effects of professional interaction with social media on the profession’s wider relationship with society and whether current regulatory advice goes far enough to protecting the interests of patients. It is important for the use of social media by dental professionals to fit within the established social contract between the profession and society and failure to observe the terms of this will cause damage to the patient - professional relationship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Sociology, Profession, Professional, All rights reserved, Copyright, Occupations