SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Professional sports

194

The prevalence of obesity in men in the UK is amongst the highest in Europe but men are less likely than women to use existing weight loss programmes. Developing weight management programmes which are appealing and acceptable to men is a public health priority. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a men-only weight management programme delivered to groups of men at top professional football clubs, encourages men to lose weight by working with, not against, cultural ideals of masculinity. To inform further development of interventions in football club settings, the current study explored who is attracted to FFIT and why overweight/obese men choose to take part.

Concepts: Health, Cancer, Nutrition, Obesity, Adipose tissue, Weight loss, Bariatric surgery, Professional sports

135

Do coaches' leadership styles affect injury rates and the availability of players in professional football? Certain types of leadership behaviour may cause stress and have a negative impact on players' health and well-being.

Concepts: Sociology, Management, Injuries, Injury, Leadership, Coaching, Football, Professional sports

112

103

Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme-biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence.

Concepts: Time, Game theory, Association football, American football, Chess, Football, Professional sports, Columbus, Ohio

89

Evidence suggests that an athlete’s sports-related perceptual-cognitive expertise is a crucial element of top-level competitive sports1. When directly assessing whether such experience-related abilities correspond to fundamental and non-specific cognitive laboratory measures such as processing speed and attention, studies have shown moderate effects leading to the conclusion that their special abilities are context-specific2. We trained 308 observers on a complex dynamic visual scene task void of context and motor control requirements3 and demonstrate that professionals as a group dramatically differ from high-level amateur athletes, who dramatically differ from non-athlete university students in their capacity to learn such stimuli. This demonstrates that a distinguishing factor explaining the capacities of professional athletes is their ability to learn how to process complex dynamic visual scenes. This gives us an insight as to what is so special about the elite athletes' mental abilities, which allows them to express great prowess in action.

Concepts: Psychology, Skill, Professional, Learning, 2005 albums, Amateur, Amateur sports, Professional sports

43

Food and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy products are associated with popular sports organizations, especially those viewed by youth.

Concepts: Alcoholic beverage, Drink, Food and drink, Professional sports, Beverages, Non-alcoholic beverage

35

Although the incidence of football injuries should relate to team success there is little empirical evidence.

Concepts: Injury, Empirical, Empirical research, Football, Professional sports

34

There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate isokinetic measurements in MRI-positive hamstring injuries.

Concepts: American football, Professional sports

27

BACKGROUND:Chronic adductor enthesopathy is a well-known cause of groin pain in athletes. Currently, percutaneous nonselective adductor tenotomies give mixed results and not always predictable outcomes. HYPOTHESIS:A selective partial adductor longus release as treatment for recalcitrant chronic adductor longus enthesopathy provides excellent pain relief with a prompt and consistent return to preinjury levels of sport. STUDY DESIGN:Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS:All athletes were assessed in a standard way for adductor dysfunction. They received radiographs and a specifically designed magnetic resonance imaging groin study protocol. Only professional athletes who received a selective partial adductor release were included. Pain and functional improvement were assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and time to return to sport. RESULTS:Forty-three professional athletes (39 soccer and 4 rugby) with chronic adductor-related groin pain were treated with a selective partial adductor release. The average follow-up time was 40.2 months (range, 25-72 months). Forty-two of 43 athletes returned to their preinjury level of sport after an average of  9.21 weeks (range, 4-24 weeks; SD, 4.68 weeks). The preoperative VAS score improved significantly (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P < .001) from 5.76 ± 1.08 (range, 3-8) to 0.23 ± 0.61 (range, 0-3) postoperatively. CONCLUSION:A selective partial adductor longus release provides excellent pain relief for chronic adductor enthesopathy in professional athletes with a consistent high rate of return to the preinjury level of sport.

Concepts: X-ray, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Radiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Rate of return, Professional sports, Adductor longus muscle

24

Purpose To better understand the relationship between exposure to concussive and subconcussive head impacts, white matter integrity, and functional task-related neural activity in former U.S. football athletes. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 61 cognitively unimpaired former collegiate and professional football players (age range, 52-65 years) provided informed consent to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants were stratified across three crossed factors: career duration, concussion history, and primary playing position. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) percent signal change (PSC) were measured with diffusion-weighted and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Analyses of variance of FA and BOLD PSC were used to determine main or interaction effects of the three factors. Results A significant interaction between career duration and concussion history was observed; former college players with more than three concussions had lower FA in a broadly distributed area of white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t29 = 2.774; adjusted P = .037), and the opposite was observed for former professional players (t29 = 3.883; adjusted P = .001). A separate interaction between concussion history and position was observed: Nonspeed players with more than three concussions had lower FA in frontal white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t25 = 3.861; adjusted P = .002). Analysis of working memory-task BOLD PSC revealed a similar interaction between concussion history and position (all adjusted P < .004). Overall, former players with lower FA tended to have lower BOLD PSC across three levels of a working memory task. Conclusion Career duration and primary playing position seem to modify the effects of concussion history on white matter structure and neural recruitment. The differences in brain structure and function were observed in the absence of clinical impairment, which suggested that multimodal imaging may provide early markers of onset of traumatic neurodegenerative disease. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Concepts: Brain, Informed consent, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Neurodegeneration, American football, Concussion, Professional sports