Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Process


We have proposed and successfully demonstrated a novel approach to direct conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy using microfluidics. The method combines previously demonstrated reverse electrowetting on dielectric (REWOD) phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse. Fast bubble dynamics, used in conjunction with REWOD, provides a possibility to increase the generated power density by over an order of magnitude, as compared to the REWOD alone. This energy conversion approach is particularly well suited for energy harvesting applications and can enable effective coupling to a broad array of mechanical systems including such ubiquitous but difficult to utilize low-frequency energy sources as human and machine motion. The method can be scaled from a single micro cell with 10(-6) W output to power cell arrays with a total power output in excess of 10 W. This makes the fabrication of small light-weight energy harvesting devices capable of producing a wide range of power outputs feasible.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Mechanical engineering, Energy conservation, Energy conversion, Process, Electrical engineering, Potential energy, Electricity


A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors-with its risks- is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings-at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

Concepts: Critical period, Childhood, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Critical appraisal, Child development, Process, Developmental psychology


People often attempt to shape others' perceptions of them, but the role of romantic relationships in this process is unknown. The present set of studies investigates relationship visibility, the centrality of relationships in the self-images that people convey to others. We propose that attachment underlies relationship visibility and test this hypothesis across three studies in the context of Facebook. Avoidant individuals showed low desire for relationship visibility, whereas anxious individuals reported high desired visibility (Studies 1 and 2); however, similar motives drove both groups' actual relationship visibility (Study 1). Moreover, both avoidant individuals and their partners were less likely to make their relationships visible (Studies 1 and 3). On a daily basis, when people felt more insecure about their partner’s feelings, they tended to make their relationships visible (Study 3). These studies highlight the role of relationships in how people portray themselves to others.

Concepts: John Bowlby, Cultural studies, Process, Present, Relationship, Psychology, Interpersonal relationship


The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress.

Concepts: Context switch, Abnormal psychology, Primary care, Cultural studies, Process, Great Depression, Symptoms, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor


Purpose:To assess the prevalence and degree of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort, to assess whether LSTV correlates with low back pain (LBP) and buttock pain, and to assess the reproducibility of grading LSTV.Materials & Methods:Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent documentation was approved for the study protocol. Standard standing pelvic radiographs that included the transverse processes of L5 were graded according to Castellvi classification of LSTV in 4636 participants (1992 men and 2804 women; aged 45-80 years) from the OAI cohort. These data were correlated with prevalence and severity of LBP and buttock pain.Results:Prevalence of LSTV was 18.1% (841 of 4636), with a higher rate in men than in women (28.1% vs 11.1%, respectively; P < .001). Of the 841 individuals with LSTV, 41.72% were type I (dysplastic enlarged transverse process), 41.4% were type II (pseudoarticulation), 11.5% were type III (fusion), and 5.2% were type IV (one transverse process fused and one with pseudoarticulation). Of the participants without LSTV, 53.9% reported LBP, while the prevalence of LBP for types I, II, III, and IV was 46%, 73%, 40%, and 66%, respectively (P < .05, χ(2) test). Types II and IV had higher prevalence and severity of LBP and buttock pain (P < .001).Conclusion:LSTV types II and IV positively correlate with prevalence and severity of LBP and buttock pain.©RSNA, 2012.

Concepts: Vertebra, Massage, Process, Spinal disc herniation, Low back pain, Back pain, Informed consent, Acupuncture


Couple therapy in the context of dissociative identity disorder (DID) has been neglected as an area of exploration and development in the couple therapy and trauma literature. What little discussion exists focuses primarily on couple therapy as an adjunct to individual therapy rather than as a primary treatment for couple distress and trauma. Couple therapy researchers have begun to develop adaptations to provide effective support to couples dealing with the impact of childhood trauma in their relationships, but little attention has been paid to the specific and complex needs of DID patients in couple therapy (H. B. MacIntosh & S. Johnson, 2008 ). This review and case presentation explores the case of “Lisa,” a woman diagnosed with DID, and “Don,” her partner, and illustrates the themes of learning to communicate, handling conflicting needs, responding to child alters, and addressing sexuality and education through their therapy process. It is the hope of the author that this discussion will renew interest in the field of couple therapy in the context of DID, with the eventual goal of developing an empirically testable model of treatment for couples.

Concepts: Psychology, Process, Personality psychology, Sexual abuse, Mental disorder, Scientific method, Dissociation, Dissociative identity disorder


The purpose of this study was to document parent presentation of the Lidcombe Program verbal contingencies and model potential relationships between contingency provision and treatment duration.

Concepts: Machine code, Computer program, Model, Philosophy of science, Systems engineering, Process


Burn injuries nearly always occur by accident. Burn injuries that cover large areas of the body typically cause hypertrophic scarring and joint contractures that affect the ability of the burn patient to handle normal activities of daily living. Occupational therapists begin the related interventions as early as possible, and patients require rehabilitation continuously until scar maturation. The present article provides an overview of the approach that occupational therapists should take in treating burn patients. Key elements of this approach include creating a burn rehabilitation program and helping patients achieve independence in their activities of daily living by applying individual assistive devices. The goal of this program is to allow burn patients to return to the workplace and to a normal life. We hope that this article makes more specialists aware of the proper approach to occupational therapy for burn patients and reduces the incidence of post-burn-injury sequelae.

Concepts: Medicine, Injuries, Process, Occupational science, Occupational therapist, Scar, Therapy, Occupational therapy


Pediatric feeding problems occur in 25% of the general pediatric population and up to 80% of those who have developmental delays. When feeding problems place the child at nutritional risk, families are typically encouraged to increase their child’s intake. Family mealtime can become a battle, which further reinforces problematic feeding behaviors from the child and intensifies well-intentioned but unguided parental mealtime efforts. Family has an essential influence on feeding; however, studies to date neglect to address the family context of feeding difficulty. In this study we describe, in the context of everyday life, family management of feeding when a child had a significant feeding problem. Parents of children with feeding problems were interviewed with the Family Management Style Framework components as a guide. Twelve parents participated, representing nine families of children with feeding disorder. Description of family management of feeding provides a foundation for development of family feeding interventions.

Concepts: Developmental psychology, Process, Sibling, Child, Management, Father, Family, Mother


Zika virus (ZIKV) exhibits unique transmission dynamics in that it is concurrently spread by a mosquito vector and through sexual contact. Due to the highly asymmetric durations of infectiousness between males and females-it is estimated that males are infectious for periods up to 10 times longer than females-we show that this sexual component of ZIKV transmission behaves akin to an asymmetric percolation process on the network of sexual contacts. We exactly solve the properties of this asymmetric percolation on random sexual contact networks and show that this process exhibits two epidemic transitions corresponding to a core-periphery structure. This structure is not present in the underlying contact networks, which are not distinguishable from random networks, and emerges because of the asymmetric percolation. We provide an exact analytical description of this double transition and discuss the implications of our results in the context of ZIKV epidemics. Most importantly, our study suggests a bias in our current ZIKV surveillance, because the community most at risk is also one of the least likely to get tested.

Concepts: Zika fever, Sexual intercourse, Process, Human sexual behavior, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Infectious disease